|common barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)|
Several, see text
Echinochloa is a grass genus, some of whose members are millets grown as cereal or fodder crops. The most notable of these are Japanese millet (E. esculenta) in East Asia, Indian barnyard millet (E. frumentacea) in South Asia, and burgu millet (E. stagnina) in West Africa. Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses (though this may also refer to E. crus-galli specifically), barnyard millets or billion-dollar grasses.
When not grown on purpose, these grasses may become a nuisance to farmers. In particular, common barnyard grass (E. crus-galli) is notorious as a weed. It is not easily suppressed with living mulches such as velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). Early barnyard grass (E. oryzoides) is a well-known example of Vavilovian mimicry: the plants have evolved to resemble rice (Oryza), enabling them to escape weeding more easily.
Among the plant pathogens that affect this genus are the sac fungus Cochliobolus sativus, which has been noted on common barnyard grass, and rice hoja blanca virus. Both affect many other grass species, in particular most important cereals, and Echinochloa weeds may serve as a reservoir. The fungi Drechslera monoceras and Exserohilum monoceras have been evaluated with some success as potential biocontrol agents of common barnyard grass in rice fields. More research is necessary, however, because they may not be host-specific enough to be of practical use.
- Echinochloa caudata
- Echinochloa colona – shama grass, samo
- Echinochloa crus-galli – common barnyard grass, cockspur grass
- Echinochloa crus-pavonis – gulf cockspur grass
- Echinochloa esculenta – Japanese millet
- Echinochloa frumentacea – Indian barnyard millet
- Echinochloa inundata
- Echinochloa lacunaria (F.Muell.) P.W.Michael & Vickery
- Echinochloa muricata (P.Beauv.) Fernald – rough barnyard grass, American barnyard grass
- Echinochloa muricata var. microstachya
- Echinochloa muricata var. muricata
- Echinochloa oryzoides – early barnyard grass
- Echinochloa polystachya
- Echinochloa pyramidalis
- Echinochloa stagnina – burgu millet
- Echinochloa telmatophila
- Echinochloa turneriana
- Echinochloa walteri – Walter's barnyard grass
- Pheng et al. (2001)
- Caamal-Maldonado et al. (2001)
- Barrett (1983)
- Huang et al. (2001)
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- Barrett, S. (1983): Mimicry in Plants. Sci. Am. 257(3): 76-83.
- Caamal-Maldonado, J.A.; Jimenez, J.J.; Torres, A. & Anaya, A. (2001): The use of allelopathic legume cover and mulch species for weed control in cropping systems. Agronomy Journal 93(1): 27-36. PDF fulltext
- Huang, S.W.; Watson, A.K.; Duan, G.F. & Yu, L.Q. (2001): Preliminary evaluation of potential pathogenic fungi as bioherbicides of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in China. International Rice Research Institute Notes 26(2): 36-37. PDF fulltext
- Pheng, S.; Khiev, B.; Pol, C. & Jahn, G.C. (2001): Response of two rice cultivars to the competition of Echinochloa crus-galli. International Rice Research Institute Notes 26(2): 36-37. PDF fulltext