Enel Green Power

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Enel Green Power S.p.A.
Società per azioni
Traded as BITEGPW, BMADEGPW
Industry Energy
Founded December 2008
Headquarters Rome, Italy
Key people
Products Wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, biomass
Revenue €2,996 million (2014)[3]
€1,021 million (2014)[3]
Profit €528 million (2014)[3]
Number of employees
3,609 (end 2014)[3]
Parent Enel
Website www.enelgreenpower.com

Enel Green Power S.p.A. is an Italian multinational renewable energy corporation, headquartered in Rome. The company was formed as a subsidiary of the power generation firm Enel in December 2008, grouping its global renewable energy interests. Enel Green Power has operations in over 16 countries across Europe, North and South America. It generates energy principally from hydroelectricity, wind, solar power, geothermal electricity and biomass sources. At the end of September 2011, the company's total worldwide installed capacity was 6,490 MW, which it intends to increase to 10,400 MW by 2015.

A 30.8% stake in the company was floated on the Borsa Italiana and Bolsa de Madrid in November 2010, raising €2.6 billion and marking the largest initial public offering in Europe since that of Iberdrola Renovables in December 2007.[4] In 2014, the company was presented with a European Solar Prize by Eurosolar.[5]

History[edit]

Enel Green Power was founded on the 1st of December 2008 to concentrate all of Enel’s activities in the production of renewable energy. At the time of its establishment, Enel Green Power was the largest European company in the field of renewable energy both in terms of installed capacity and international presence.[6] Following its foundation, the activities of the renewable energy branch which were until then held by Enel Produzione SpA in Italy, and those belonging to Enel Investment Holding abroad (Enel Latin America BV, Erelis Enel, Endesa), have been gradually transferred to Enel Green Power.[6]

In November 2010, following Enel’s acquisition of Endesa (June 2009), the company made an initial public offering of 30.8% of Enel Green Power in the Italian Stock Exchange and the Bolsa de Madrid, earning the company 2.6 billions of Euros. In Italy and Spain, the IPO of Enel Green Power was handled by PricewaterhouseCoopers and involved about 340 thousand investors, generating a demand of about 1,260 million shares (of which 520 million subscribed of institutional investors).[7] The company is listed on the stock markets of Milan and Madrid and on the regional stock exchanges of Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia.

Operations[edit]

Enel Green Power is engaged in the production of electricity from renewable sources at a global level: in March 2015, with 735 active power plants, it is present in 4 continents (Europe, North America, South America, Africa). In every country the activity is managed through a national division. The production mix includes geothermal energy, hydropower, solar energy, biomass, and wind power, with a total production capacity of 9,789 MW.[8]

Electricity Production[edit]

Wind power was the highest percentage in the breakdown of production for 2014. A total 5,860 MW of wind power is produced yearly, just under 60% of the total energy produced globally by Enel Green Power. Hydropower generated 2,624 MW (26.8% of the total); geothermal energy 833 MW (8.5% of the total); solar power 433 MW (4.4% of the total); and energy from biomass 39 MW (0.4% of the total).[8]

The hydropower production is concentrated mainly in Europe, where in 2014 Enel Green Power produced 60% of its hydropower.[8]

In 2014 Europe also produced the highest percentage of photovoltaic power (60% of which came from Enel Green Power’s solar energy production) and geothermal power (91.5%). The entire European production of the latter is located in Italy.[8]

Summary table for the production of electricity in MW[8]
Country Wind Power Hydropower Geothermal Solar Energy Biomass and other Total
Europe
Italy 720 1,512 761 122 - 3,115
Bulgaria 42 - - - - 42
Greece 200 20 - 88 - 308
Romania 498 - - 36 - 534
Spain 1,615 43 - 13 39 1,710
Portugal 126 - - - - 126
North America
Canada 103 - - - - 103
USA 1,563 317 72 28 - 1,980
South America
Brazil 283 93 - - - 376
Cile 381 92 - 136 - 609
Costarica 24 31 - - - 55
Mexico 305 53 - - - 408
Panama - 300 - - - 300
Guatemala - 163 - - - 163
Africa
South Africa - - - 10 - 10
Total 5,860 2,624 833 433 39 9,789

Technology[edit]

Geothermal[edit]

Enel Green Power runs 34 geothermal power plants in Tuscany, with a total capacity of about 875.5 MW, that are able meet more than 26% of the regional consumption.[9][10] Amongst those, the plant of Larderello, built in 1904, is currently one of the of the largest in the world.[11][12][13]

In the United States Enel Green Power operates three power plants, one of which is a solar-geothermal hybrid. Two of them are located in Churchill County, Nevada, and one is near Cove Fort, Utah.[14][15][16]

In Turkey, where the company has been in partnership with Uzun since 2011, it leads surveys to identify areas for the production of geothermal energy.[17]

Geothermal-Biomass Hybrid[edit]

Enel Green Power is currently working on the construction of Cornia 2, in Castelnuovo Val di Cecina, Pisa (Tuscany). Cornia 2 is the world's first geothermal-biomass hybrid plant, where the biomass, which comes from agriculture and related activities within 70 km from the plant itself, contribute to heat the geothermal steam up to over double its usual temperature (from 150-160 °C to 370-380 °C), thus increasing the electricity production capacity by 5 MW on top of the current 13 MW.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]

Solar-Geothermal Hybrid[edit]

Enel Green Power has designed and built the first solar-geothermal hybrid plant, that combines the two sources of energy thus increasing the electricity production capacity. The first power plant of this kind, Stillwater Geothermal/Solar Power Plant, is located in Fallon, Nevada (USA), and has received $40 million in tax relief under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.[27][28]

In the first half of 2014 work began to integrate a solar thermal power plant to the structure, which will add an additional capacity of 17 MW to the current net capacity of 33 MW.[29][30][31]

In the second half of 2014, Enel Green Power has partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the supervision of the US Department of Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), via a cooperative research and development agreement, in order to use the data of the Stillwater plant to further develop the technology.[32][33]

Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal[edit]

Enel Green Power also owns Enel.si, a company that operates in the photovoltaic sector with a market share of about 15% in the Italian market. Enel.si is also active on the solar thermal market where it operates directly and through a franchising network of 400 installers.[citation needed]

Solar Thermal and CSP (Concentrated solar power)[edit]

The company also operates in the solar thermal and CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) participating in research and development activities along with ENEA. Based on the studies of Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia, in 2010 Enel Green Power built the Archimede solar power plant in Priolo Gargallo, (Syracuse, Sicily) that has a total capacity of 5 MW. In the plant, parabolic mirrors focus the sun’s heat on a fluid of molten salts that reaches temperatures of over 500 °C/932 °F and is able to retain heat for several hours, turning water into steam that then activates the traditional steam turbines system to produce electricity. The objective is to increase the efficiency of this type of plants so as to make them competitive compared to other sources.[34][35][36][37][38][39][40]

Hydropower[edit]

In Panama, the company runs the plants of Fortuna, in Chiriquí, which produces 300 MW and covers about 25% of the entire national production of electricity. The plant is located in the Fortuna Forest Reserve.[citation needed]

Wind Power[edit]

Enel Green Power’s experience with wind power dates back to 1984, when Enel built the first Italian wind farm in Sardinia. In October 2008, in Kansas, US, the plant of Smoky Hills, with a capacity of 250 MW, came into service, while in January 2008 in Snyder, Texas, Enel Green Power completed the installation of 21 3 MW wind turbines.[citation needed]

Wind-solar hybrid and cogeneration[edit]

In 2014, in Ollagüe, Chile, Enel Green Power began the construction of a mini hybrid solar-wind cogeneration plant for the production of both electricity and hot water, which runs independently from the national electricity system and is able to meet the average need of 150 families with an average capacity of 232 kW.[citation needed]

Marine energy[edit]

At the end of 2014 Enel Green Power and DCNS were appointed by CORFO (Corporación de Fomento de la Producción) in Chile to research and develop new technologies for the use of marine energy. The Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) was built to carry out the assignment.[citation needed]

International Presence[edit]

Europe[edit]

Italy[edit]

More than half of Enel Green Power’s plants are located in Italy, for a net installed capacity of around 2,830 MW. The production mix includes Geothermal electricity, hydroelectricity, wind, Solar power, whose development had a strong boost in 2011 and will be emphasized in the coming years.

Enel Green Power is also a leader in geothermal, with 34 power plants located in Tuscany, representing a capacity of 728 MW and providing an annual production of over 5 billion kWh. The company is a world reference for this technology. It initiated its first center in the area of Larderello in Tuscany, as early as the beginning of last century.

Wind energy has had the greatest growth in Italy since the beginning of the 21st century, including ENEL facilities.

In the field of solar energy, Enel Green Power developed the franchisee model in Italy of Enel Green Power Retail. In addition, a thin-film photovoltaic panels factory was inaugurated in 2011 in Catania, through a joint venture with Sharp and ST-Microelectronics. The generation of electricity from solar energy is coming from 67 MW installed in 2011, (data as of the end of September).

Iberian Peninsula[edit]

Enel Green power has facilities in the Iberian Peninsula thorough a total installed capacity of 1,707 MW and 120 plants. This presence is the result of the integration of renewable energy activities of Enel and Endesa. The wind technology, with about 90 plants for a net installed capacity of 1,530, has the biggest share. The production mix includes mini-hydro with about 10 plants for 57MW, solar with 3 plants for 14MW, and cogeneration and biomass with 20 plants representing 107MW

Eastern Europe[edit]

Enel Green Power has substantial presence in Romania, which has recently launched a major program to support investments in renewables. At the end of 2012, Enel Green Power had five operating wind farms with an installed capacity of 292MW, and another 206MW under construction.[41] Enel Green Power is also present in Bulgaria with two wind farms representing 42 MW.

France[edit]

Enel Green Power, has 10 wind farms with an installed capacity of 166 MW ; its strategy is to develop facilities to make use of on-shore wind, while continuing to evaluate possible investments in photovoltaic.

Greece[edit]

Enel Green Power is present in Greece, with 14 wind farms for a net installed capacity of 172 MW and 5 hydroelectric plants for 14 MW.

North America[edit]

In North America, Enel Green Power has an overall capacity of 786 MW across four technologies. In the United States Enel Green Power owns more than 60 hydroelectric plants (313 MW of installed capacity), 21 wind farms (378 MW of net installed), and 2 geothermal plants (47 MW of net installed). In Canada it has a biomass plant (21 MW of net installed capacity) and a wind farm (27 MW of net installed capacity).

EGP started operations of the first hybrid solar-geothermal plant at the Stillwater site in Nevada. 17MW of geothermal are also in development in Cove Fort. Enel Green Power completed at the end of 2011 the 200MW Caney River wind farm in Kansas, and initiated construction of the 150MW Rocky Ridge plant in Oklahoma.

Latin America[edit]

Enel Green Power has a presence in Central and South America with 34 plants spread across Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Chile and Brazil. In addition Enel Green Power owns a stake in a company in El Salvador which operates a geothermal plant. Enel Green Power currently has 32 hydroelectric plants with an installed capacity of 645MW of which one plant in Panama accounting for 300 MW - the second infrastructure after the Canal - generating 25% of the country. It is also building in Guatemala, in the region of Quiche, the run of the river hydroelectric plant in Palo Viejo with a capacity of 85 MW and in Costa Rica the Chucas hydroelectric plant with a capacity of 50MW. Enel Green Power also owns a 24 MW of wind farm in Tilaran, Costa Rica. It recently won an the auction in Brazil to develop an additional 193MW, to be added to the 90MW awarded at a previous auction.

Recent Events[edit]

On Nov. 11, 2014, the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Oklahoma filed suit against Enel's subsidiary. Osage Wind LLC, an 84-turbine industrial wind project in Osage County, Okla.[7] In the suit, the United States alleges that Enel and Osage Wind are illegally converting minerals owned by the Osage Nation, a Native American tribe that has owned all mineral rights in the county since 1871. [8]The suit says that Osage Wind should have obtained a permit from the Bureau of Indian Affairs before mining rock and other material for the pits in which turbine bases are built. The United States asked that all excavating on the 8,500 acre site cease and that dozens of turbines that are already being erected be removed.[9] Osage Wind has insisted that it is not mining and needs no permit. The company says that it has already spent nearly $300 million on the project, which is being built on privately owned fee land, not land held in trust for American Indians. [10]

Osage Wind LLC and a second and adjacent Enel wind project, Mustang Run, are also embroiled in challenges pending before the Oklahoma Supreme Court in which the Osage Nation and Osage County, Okla., are challenging the constitutional legitimacy of permits for both projects. [11][12]

On February 3, 2015, a turbine at the hydropower plant at Barber Dam, Boise, Idaho, turned off. A regional operations manager for Enel says it's not clear what caused the shut down, and that an alert system also failed. Boise River water normally flows through at 240 cubic feet per second, but that night it dipped to less than 60 cfs. Several local, state, and federal agencies are now looking into the incident, and its effects. Idaho Rivers United says even though it's hard to measure the impact, it's an important issue. "The damage is invisible right now but that doesn't mean there wasn't a lot of harm done to the river." The low water level stretched 10 to 15 miles downstream, and brought the Boise River to its driest point in decades. Idaho Fish and Game says they did find some dead fish, and although they believe while adult fish weren't impacted, younger ones could have been. "We think there was some impact to wild brown trout and small young of the year mountain whitefish, as well as the food base... this event could have been potentially damaging to that age class of wild brown trout and wild mountain whitefish," said Joe Kozfkay, Idaho Fish and Game Regional Fish Manager.[42]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Maya Kantchevska (18 December 2014). "Enel Green Power names Alberto de Paoli chairman". SeeNews. Retrieved 13 May 2015. 
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  29. ^ "ENEL GREEN POWER: WORK UNDERWAY ON TWO INNOVATIVE POWER PLANTS IN CHILE AND USA". Enel. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
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  40. ^ G. Lorenzini; C. Biserni; G. Flacco (2010). Solar Thermal and Biomass Energy. WIT Press. pp. 115–116. ISBN 9781845641474. 
  41. ^ "Enel Green Power commissions 48MW wind farm in Romania". ReCharge. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-12-16. 
  42. ^ http://www.ktvb.com/story/news/local/2015/03/05/barber-dam-environmental-effects/24471447/

External links[edit]