Father-in-law of Europe

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King Christian IX with his large family gathered at Fredensborg Palace, painting by Laurits Tuxen from 1883 to 1886

The Father-in-law of Europe is a sobriquet which has been used to refer to two European monarchs of the late 19th and early 20th century: Christian IX of Denmark and Nicholas I of Montenegro, both on account of their children's marriages to foreign princes and princesses. The fact that each was a monarch of moderate or modest power (and thus a marriage would not threaten the delicate balance of power) and the number of children each had allowed them to marry their children to heirs of greater fortunes across the continent.

Christian IX of Denmark[edit]

The children of King Christian IX (1818-1906) and Queen Louise (1817-1898) of Denmark included:

Christian IX used to gather his children, children-in-law and grand children for the so-called Fredensborg days at Fredensborg Palace north of Copenhagen in the summer time.[1] Christian and Louise's grandchildren included King George V of the United Kingdom, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, King Constantine I of Greece and both King Haakon VII & his consort, Queen Maud of Norway.

Nicholas I of Montenegro[edit]

Nicholas I (1841–1921) was the father of:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Christian 9. med familie, 1886". De Danske Kongers Kronologiske Samling. Retrieved 2011-06-23.