A First Information Report (FIR) is a written document prepared by police organizations in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan when they receive information about the commission of a cognizable offence. It is generally a complaint lodged with the police by the victim of a cognizable offense or by someone on his or her behalf, but anyone can make such a report either orally or in writing to the police.
An FIR is an important document because it sets the process of criminal justice in motion. It is only after the FIR is registered in the police station that the police take up investigation of the case. Anyone who knows about the commission of a cognizable offence, including police officers, can file an FIR.
As described in law,
When information about the commission of a cognizable offence is given orally, the police must write it down.
The person giving information or making a complaint has a right to demand that the information recorded by the police be read to him or her.
Once the information has been recorded by the police, it must be signed by the person giving the information.