Chief Justice of India
|Chief Justice of India|
Emblem of the Supreme Court of India
|Appointer||Incumbent President Of India|
|Inaugural holder||H. J. Kania|
|Salary||100000 (US$1,600) monthly
w.e.f. 1 January 2006
|Website||Supreme Court of India|
|This article is part of a series on|
|Judiciary of India|
|Law of India|
The Chief Justice of India is the highest-ranking judge in the Supreme Court of India, and thus holds the highest judicial position in India. As well as presiding in the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice also heads its administrative functions.
As the chief judge, the Chief Justice is responsible for the allocation of cases and appointment of constitutional benches which deal with important matters of law. In accordance with Article 145 of the Constitution of India and the Supreme Court Rules of Procedure of 1966, the Chief Justice allocates all work to the other judges who are bound to refer the matter back to him or her (for re-allocation) in any case where they require it to be looked into by a bench of higher strength.
On the administrative side, the Chief Justice carries out the following functions:
- Maintenance of the roster;
- Appointment of court officials;
- General and miscellaneous matters relating to the supervision and functioning of the Supreme Court.
Article 124 of the Constitution of India provides for the manner of appointing judges to the Supreme Court. However, no specific provision is made as to the appointment of the Chief Justice; as a result, the Chief Justice is appointed in the same manner as for the other judges to the Supreme Court.
Generally, the most senior (i.e. earliest appointed) judge in the Supreme Court is appointed by the President. However, this convention has been breached on a number of occasions, most notably during the premiership of Indira Gandhi, who appointed A.N. Ray despite three judges being more senior than him. It has been alleged that Ray was appointed because he was considered to be a supporter of Gandhi's government, during a time when her government was becoming increasingly mired in a political and constitutional crisis.
In the aftermath of The Emergency, the Supreme Court in a series of landmark decisions asserted its position and independence. In one such case in the constitutional bench, the case of S.P. Gupta — II, the Court declared that the Government of India would be bound to nominate only the most senior judge of the Supreme Court for the position of Chief Justice, thereby removing a potential source for Government influence over the judiciary. Since then, the convention has been followed without exception.
Oath or affirmation
I, name, having been appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India do swear in the name of God/solemnly affirm that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my ability, knowledge and judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws.
— Constitution of India, Third Schedule, Part IV
Judicial Appointments Commission Bill
The Commission seeks to perform functions that relate to appointment, transfer and quality of candidates. The Judicial Appointments Commission Bill, 2013 was introduced in the Rajya Sabha on August 24, 2013 by the Minister of Law and Justice, Mr. Kapil Sibal. The Bill has been introduced in conjunction with the Constitutional (One Hundred and Twentieth Amendment) Bill, 2013, which inserts Article 124A, providing for the setting up of a Judicial Appointments Commission, and is pending before Parliament. The Bill provides for the composition, functions and procedure of the Judicial Appointments Commission. The Commission is sought to be established for the purpose of recommending persons for appointment as Chief Justice of India and other Judges of the Supreme Court, and Chief Justice and other Judges of High Courts. The Bill seeks to enable equal participation of Judiciary and Executive, ensure that the appointments to the higher judiciary are more participatory, transparent and objective. Establishment and composition of Commission
The Commission shall be chaired by the Chief Justice of India (CJI) and shall comprise of two other senior most Judges of the Supreme Court, the Union Minister for Law and Justice and two eminent persons to be nominated by the collegium. The collegium comprises the Prime Minister, the CJI and Leader of Opposition of the Lok Sabha. The eminent members will retain membership for a three year period and are not eligible for re nomination. The Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Justice shall be the convener of the Commission.
Functions of Commission
The Commission seeks to perform functions that relate to appointment, transfer and quality of candidates. Those include (i) recommending persons for appointment as Chief Justice of India; judges of the Supreme Court, Chief Justices of High Courts and other judges of High Courts; (ii) recommending of transfer of Chief Justices of High Courts and the judges of High Courts, from one High Court to any other High Court; (iii) ensuring that the person recommended is of ability, integrity and standing in the legal profession. The procedure for recommendation with respect to appointment of High Court Judges includes eliciting views of the Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Justice of High Court of the concerned state, in writing. This shall be in accordance with procedure specified by regulations made by the Commission.
Reference to Commission for filling up of vacancies
Upon the arising of a vacancy in the High Court and Supreme Court, references to the Commission shall be made by the Central Government. Intimation of existing vacancies shall be made within a period of three months from the date of coming into force of this Act. In the case of vacancy due to the completion of term, reference shall be made two months prior to the date of occurrence of vacancy. In the case of vacancy due to the death, resignation, reference shall be made within a period of two months from the date of occurrence of vacancy.
Procedure for short listing of candidates
Process for selection shall be initiated by the Convener, by inviting recommendations from the Chief Justices of High Courts, the Central Government and the State Governments, for candidates fulfilling eligibility criteria. The Commission may make regulations to specify the procedure for short listing of candidates for considering their appointment as Judges to the High Court and Supreme Court.
Article 124(4) of Constitution of India lays down the procedure for removal of a Judge of Supreme Court which is applicable to Chief Justice as well. Once appointed, the Chief Justice remains in office until his retirement age of 65 years or death. He can be removed only through a process of impeachment by Parliament as follows:
A Judge of the Supreme Court shall not be removed from his office except by an order of the President passed after an address by each House of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting has been presented to the President in the same session for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
— Article 124(4), Constitution of India , Source:
The constitution of India provides that the Chief Justice of India shall act as the President of India in the event of the offices of both the President and the Vice President being vacant. When President Zakir Hussain died in office, the Vice President VV Giri, acted as the President. However, Mr. Giri resigned as the Vice President. Then the Chief Justice Hidayatullah became the acting President of India. The most senior judge of the Supreme Court became the acting Chief Justice of India. When the newly elected President took office a month later, Justice Hidayatullah again became the Chief Justice of India.
The Constitution of India gives the power of deciding remuneration as well as other conditions of service of the Chief Justice to the Parliament of India. Accordingly, such provisions have been laid down in The Supreme Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act, 1958.
The sixth central pay commission recommended revision in the salaries and other allowances and pensionary benefits of the central government employees, including the high court and supreme court judges and all India services. The government has accepted the majority of recommendations of the commisiion and issued orders.
|1 January 1996||33000 (US$530)|
|1 January 2006||100000 (US$1,600)|
List of Chief Justices of India
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- "The High Court and Supreme Court Judges Salaries and Conditions of Service Amendment Bill 2008". PRS India.
- "Article 124, Constitution of India". Vakilno1.com. Archived from the original on 26 Dec 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "Supreme Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act 1958". Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Archived from the original on 4 Jan 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
|Order of precedence|
Former Presidents and Deputy Prime Minister
|Chief Justice of India
with Speaker of Lok Sabha