Fixed action pattern

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In ethology, a fixed action pattern (FAP), or modal action pattern, is an instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to completion.[1] Fixed action patterns are invariant and are produced by a neural network known as the innate releasing mechanism in response to an external sensory stimulus known as a sign stimulus or releaser (a signal from one individual to another). A fixed action pattern is one of the few types of behaviors which can be said to be hard-wired and instinctive.

Examples[edit]

Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mother's beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex.

Many mating dances, commonly carried out by birds, are examples of fixed action patterns. In these cases, the sign stimulus is typically the presence of the female.

Another example of fixed action patterns is aggression between male red-bellied sticklebacks during the mating season. A series of experiments carried out by Niko Tinbergen showed that the aggressive behavior of the males is a FAP triggered by anything red, the sign stimulus. The threat display of male stickleback is also a fixed action pattern triggered by a stimulus.

Another well known example are the classic experiments by Tinbergen and Lorenz on the Graylag Goose. Like similar waterfowl, it will roll a displaced egg near its nest back to the others with its beak. The sight of the displaced egg triggers this behavior. If the egg is taken away, the animal continues with the behavior, pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the underside of its beak.[2] However, it will also attempt to move other egg shaped objects, such as a golf ball, door knob, or even an egg too large to have possibly been laid by the goose itself (a supernormal stimulus).[3]

Other examples include:

  • Kelp Gull chicks are stimulated by a red spot on the mother's beak to peck at the spot, which induces regurgitation.
  • Some moths instantly fold their wings and drop to the ground if they encounter ultrasonic signals such as those produced by bats; see ultrasound avoidance.
  • Mayflies drop their eggs when they encounter a certain pattern of light polarization which indicates they are over water.

Significance[edit]

The egg rolling behavior of a Greylag Goose is a widely cited example of FAPs.

FAPs are significant in animal behavior because they represent the simplest type of behavior in which a particular stimulus nearly always results in an invariable behavioral response. FAPs can be said to be "hard-wired" and are unusual in that most behaviors are modulated by the environment; a fixed response can lead to maladaptive results, whereas flexible behaviors are generally more likely to be adaptive. Because of this, most behaviors which are both FAPs and occur in more complex animals are usually essential to the animal's fitness, or in which speed is a factor. For instance, the Greylag Goose's egg rolling behavior is so essential to the survival of its chicks that its fitness is increased by this behavior being hard-wired. A stickleback will attack any male fish who enters his territory while the female is sexually receptive, reacting to their red colour, while the female stickleback triggers behavior in the male resulting in the fertilization of her eggs. [7] A chick which cannot consistently feed will die so a FAP of begging for food from its parents is adaptive. A moth's response to encountering echolocation needs to be immediate to avoid predation. However, because these behaviors are hard-wired, they are also predictable. This can lead to their exploitation by humans or other animals.

Exploitation[edit]

Brood parasites provide a supernormal stimulus to the parenting species.

Some species have evolved to exploit the fixed action patterns of other species by mimicry of their sign stimulus. Replicating the releasing mechanism required to trigger a FAP is known as code-breaking. A well-known example of this is brood parasitism, where one species will lay its eggs in the nest of another species, which will then parent its young. A young North American cowbird, for example, provides a supernormal stimulus to its foster parent, which will cause it to forage rapidly in order to satisfy the larger bird's demands.[8] In a natural situation a nestling will provide higher levels of stimulus with noisier, more energetic behavior, communicating its urgent need for food. Parents in this situation should work extra hard to provide food, otherwise their own offspring are likely to die of starvation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Campbell, N. A. (1996) Biology (4th edition), Chapter 50. Benjamin Cummings, New York ISBN 0-8053-1957-3
  2. ^ Video of Grelag Goose performing FAP
  3. ^ Tinbergen, N. (1951). The Study of Instinct. Oxford University Press, New York.
  4. ^ Cooper, W.E. (2003). "Foraging mode and evolution of strike-induced chemosensory searching in lizards". Journal of Chemical Ecology 29 (4): 1013–1026. 
  5. ^ Cooper, William E.; Susan G. McDowell; Jay Ruffer (1989). "Strike-induced Chemosensory Searching in the Colubrid Snakes Elaphe g. guttata and Thamnophis sirtalis". Ethology 81 (1): 19–28. 
  6. ^ Chiszar, David; Claes Andren, Göran Nilson, Barbara O’Connell, Joseph S. Mestas, Hobart M. Smith, Charles W. Radcliffe (1982). "Strike-induced chemosensory searching in Old World vipers and New World pit vipers". Animal Learning & Behavior 10 (2): 121–125. doi:10.3758/bf03212258. 
  7. ^ APARICIO, SANS (2000). Psychology of Motivation. Spain: UNED. ISBN 9788492948673. 
  8. ^ Wickler, W. (1968) Mimicry in Plants and Animals. World University Library, London.

Further reading[edit]

  • Alcock, J. (1998) Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach (6th edition), Chapter 5. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-009-4
  • Mazur, J.E. (2005) Learning and Behavior, (6th Edition]. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-193163-3