Gull

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Gull
Seagull in flight by Jiyang Chen.jpg
Adult ring-billed gull
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Suborder: Lari
Family: Laridae
Vigors, 1825
Genera

11, see text

Flying subadult silver gulls at Kiama beach during Christmas, Sydney 2013

Gulls or seagulls[1][2] are seabirds of the family Laridae in the sub-order Lari. They are most closely related to the terns (family Sternidae) and only distantly related to auks, skimmers, and more distantly to the waders. Until the twenty-first century most gulls were placed in the genus Larus, but this arrangement is now known to be polyphyletic, leading to the resurrection of several genera.[3] An older name for gulls is mew, cognate with German "Möwe", Danish "måge", Dutch "meeuw" and French "mouette"; this term can still be found in certain regional dialects.[4][5][6]

Gulls are typically medium to large birds, usually grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They typically have harsh wailing or squawking calls, stout, longish bills, and webbed feet. Most gulls, particularly Larus species, are ground-nesting carnivores, which will take live food or scavenge opportunistically. Live food often includes crabs and small fish. Gulls have unhinging jaws which allow them to consume large prey. Apart from the kittiwakes, gulls are typically coastal or inland species, rarely venturing far out to sea.[7] The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. Large white-headed gulls are typically long-lived birds, with a maximum age of 49 years recorded for the herring gull.[8]

Gulls nest in large, densely packed noisy colonies. They lay two to three speckled eggs in nests composed of vegetation. The young are precocial, being born with dark mottled down, and mobile upon hatching.[9]

Gulls—the larger species in particular—are resourceful, inquisitive and intelligent[10] birds, demonstrating complex methods of communication and a highly developed social structure. For example, many gull colonies display mobbing behaviour, attacking and harassing would-be predators and other intruders.[11] Certain species (e.g. the herring gull) have exhibited tool use behaviour, using pieces of bread as bait with which to catch goldfish, for example.[12] Many species of gull have learned to coexist successfully with humans and have thrived in human habitats.[13] Others rely on kleptoparasitism to get their food. Gulls have been observed preying on live whales, landing on the whale as it surfaces to peck out pieces of flesh.[14]

Description and morphology[edit]

The Pacific gull is a large white-headed gull with a particularly heavy bill

Gull species range in size from the little gull, at 120 g (4.2 oz) and 29 cm (11.5 inches), to the great black-backed gull, at 1.75 kg (3.8 lbs) and 76 cm (30 inches). They are generally uniform in shape, with heavy bodies, long wings, moderately long necks . The tails of all but three species are rounded; the exceptions being the Sabine's gull and swallow-tailed gulls, which have forked tails, and the Ross's gull, which has a wedge-shaped tail. Gulls have moderately long legs (certainly longer than the terns) with fully webbed feet. The bill is generally heavy and slightly hooked, with the larger species having stouter bills than the smaller species. The bill colour is often yellow with a red spot for the larger white-headed species and red, dark red or black in the smaller species.[15]

The gulls are generalist feeders, indeed they are the least specialised of all the seabirds, and their morphology allows for equal adeptness in swimming, flying and walking. They are more adept walking on land than most other seabirds, and the smaller gulls tend to be more manoeuvrable while walking. The walking gait of gulls includes a slight side to side motion, something that can be exaggerated in breeding displays. In the air they are able to hover and they are also able to take off quickly with little space.[15]

The general pattern of plumage in adult gulls is a white body with a darker mantle; the extent to which the mantle is darker varies from pale grey to black. A few species vary in this, the ivory gull is entirely white, and some like the lava gull and Heermann's gull have partly or entirely grey bodies. The wingtips of most species are black, which improves their resistance to wear and tear, usually with a diagnostic pattern of white makings. The head of gulls may be covered by a dark hood or be entirely white. The plumage of the head varies by breeding season; in non-breeding dark-hooded gulls the hood is lost, sometimes leaving a single spot behind the eye, and in white-headed gulls non-breeding heads may have streaking.[15]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Swallow-tailed gulls are endemic to the Galapagos Islands

The gulls have a worldwide cosmopolitan distribution. They breed on every continent, including the margins of Antarctica, and are found in the high Arctic as well. They are less common on tropical islands, although a few species do live on islands such as the Galapagos and New Caledonia. Many species breed in coastal colonies, with a preference for islands, and one species, the grey gull, breeds in the interior of dry deserts far from water. There is considerable variety in the family and species may breed and feed in marine, freshwater or terrestrial habitats.[15]

Most gull species are migratory, with birds moving to warmer habitats during the winter, but the extent to which they migrate varies by species. Some species migrate long distances, like the Franklin's gull, which migrates from Canada to wintering grounds in the south of South America. Other species move much shorter distances and may simply disperse along the coasts near their breeding sites.[15]

Behaviour[edit]

Diet and feeding[edit]

Charadriiform birds drink salt water as well as fresh water, as they possess exocrine glands located in supraorbital grooves of the skull by which sodium chloride can be excreted through the nostrils to assist the kidneys in maintaining electrolyte balance.[16]

Gulls are highly adaptable feeders that opportunistically take a wide range of prey. The food taken by gulls includes fish and marine and freshwater invertebrates, both alive and already dead, terrestrial arthropods and invertebrates such as insects and earthworms, rodents, eggs, carrion, offal, reptiles, amphibians, plant items such as seeds and fruit, human refuse, and even other birds. No gull species is a single-prey specialist, and no gull species forages using only a single method. The type of food depends on circumstances, and terrestrial prey such as seeds, fruit and earthworms are more common during the breeding season while marine prey is more common in the non-breeding season when birds spend more time on large bodies of water.[15]

Ivory gull feeding on carrion

In addition to taking a wide range prey items gulls display great versatility in how they obtain prey. Prey can be obtained in the air, on water or on land. In the air a number of hooded species are able to hawk insects on the wing; larger species perform this feat more rarely. Gulls on the wing will also snatch items both off water and off the ground, and over water they will also plunge-dive to catch prey. Again smaller species are more manoeuvrable and better able to hover-dip fish from the air. Dipping is also common when birds are sitting on the water, and gulls may swim in tight circles or foot paddle to bring marine invertebrates up to the surface. Food is also obtained by searching the ground, often on the shore among sand, mud or rocks. Larger gulls tend to do more feeding in this way. In shallow water gulls may also engage in foot paddling. A method of obtaining prey unique to gulls involves dropping heavy shells of clams and mussels onto hard surfaces.[15] Gulls may fly some distance in order to find a suitable surface on which to drop shells, and there is apparently a learnt component to the task as older birds are more successful than younger ones.[17] While overall feeding success is a function of age, the diversity in both prey and feeding methods is not. It has been suggested that the time taken to learn foraging skills explains the delayed maturation in gulls.[15]

Gulls have only a limited ability to dive below the water in order to feed on deeper prey. In order to obtain prey from deeper down many species of gull feed in association with other animals, where marine hunters drive prey to the surface when hunting.[15] Examples of such associations include four species of gull feeding around plumes of mud brought to the surface by feeding grey whales,[18] and also between orcas (largest dolphin species) and kelp gulls (and other seabirds).[19]

Breeding[edit]

Black-legged kittiwakes nest colonially but have tiny, closely packed territories

Gulls are monogamous and colonial breeders that display mate fidelity that usually lasts for the life of the pair. Divorce of mated pairs does occur, but it apparently has a social cost that persists for a number of years after the break up. Gulls also display high levels of site fidelity, returning to the same colony after breeding there once and even usually breeding in the same location within that colony. Colonies can vary from just a few pairs to over a hundred thousand pairs, and may be exclusive to that gull species or shared with other seabird species. A few species nest singly, and single pairs of band-tailed gulls may breed in colonies of other birds. Within colonies gull pairs are territorial, defending an area of varying size around the nesting site from others of their species. This area can be as large as a 5 m radius around the nest in the herring gull to just a tiny area of cliff ledge in the kittiwakes.[15]

Most gulls breed once a year and have predictable breeding seasons lasting for three to five months. Gulls begin to assemble around the colony for a few weeks prior to occupying the colony. Existing pairs re-establish their pair-bonds, and unpaired birds begin courting. Birds then move back into their territories and new males establish new territories and attempt to court females. Gulls defend their territories from rivals of both sexes through calls and aerial attacks.[15]

The nest of a greater black-backed gull, with three typical eggs

Nest building is also part of the pair-bonding. Gull nests are usually mats of herbaceous matter with a central nest cup. Nests are usually built on the ground, but a few species build nests on cliffs, including the kittiwakes which almost always nest in such habitats, and in some cases in trees, and high places like Bonaparte's gulls. Species that nest in marshes must construct a nesting platform in order to keep the nest dry, particularly in species that nest in tidal marshes. Both sexes gather nesting material and build the nest, but the division of labour isn't always exactly equal.[15]

Clutch size is typically three eggs, although it is two in some of the smaller species and only one egg for the swallow-tailed gull. Within colonies birds will synchronise their laying, with synchronisation being higher in larger colonies, although after a certain level this levels off. The eggs of gulls are usually dark tan to brown or dark olive with dark splotches and scrawl markings, and are well camouflaged. Both sexes incubate the eggs, with incubation bouts lasting between one and four hours during the day and one parent incubating through the night.[15] Research on various bird species including the gull suggests that females will form pair bonds with other females to obtain alloparental care for their dependent offspring, a behavior seen in other animal species, like the elephants, wolves and the fathead minnow.[20]

Incubation lasts between 22 and 26 days, and begins after laying the first egg, although it is discontinuous until the second egg is laid. This means the first two chicks are born close together, and the third chick some time later. Young chicks are brooded by their parents for about one or two weeks, and are often at least one parent will remain with them until they fledge in order to guard them. Both parents feed the chicks, although early on in the rearing period the male does most of the feeding and the female most of the brooding and guarding.[15]

Seagulls following Prince Islands Ferry in Istanbul

Taxonomy[edit]

The taxonomy of gulls is confused by their widespread distribution zones of hybridization leading to geneflow. Some have traditionally been considered ring species, but recent evidence suggests that this assumption is questionable.[21] Until recently, most gulls were placed in the genus Larus, but this arrangement is now known to be polyphyletic, leading to the resurrection of the genera Ichthyaetus, Chroicocephalus, Leucophaeus, Saundersilarus and Hydrocoloeus.[3] Some English names refer to species complexes within the group:

Hybridisation between species of gull occurs quite frequently, although to varying degrees depending on the species involved (see Hybridisation in gulls). The taxonomy of the large white-headed gulls is particularly complicated.

In common usage, members of various gull species are often referred to as sea gulls or seagulls; however, "seagull" is a layperson's term that is not used by most ornithologists and biologists . This name is used informally to refer to a common local species or all gulls in general, and has no fixed taxonomic meaning.[citation needed] In common usage, gull-like seabirds that are not technically gulls (e.g. albatrosses, fulmars, kittiwakes, terns and skuas) may also be referred to as 'seagulls' by the layperson.

A gull at Point Lobos State Natural Reserve, CA, USA

The American Ornithologists' Union combines Sternidae, Stercorariidae, and Rhynchopidae as subfamilies in the family Laridae, but recent research[22][23][24] indicates that this is incorrect.

List of species[edit]

Gulls acquire food from humans both through handouts and theft

This is a list of gull species, presented in taxonomic sequence.

Sabine's gull is the only species in the genus Xema
A gull attacking a coot. Note that this gull is probably going after the bread or other food item in the bill of this American coot, though great black-backed gulls are known to kill and eat coots.
Gulls in a feeding frenzy
Seagull at Sandy Hook, New Jersey

Genus Larus

Genus Ichthyaetus

Genus Leucophaeus

Genus Chroicocephalus (may include Saundersilarus)

Genus Saundersilarus

Genus Hydrocoloeus (may include Rhodostethia)

Genus Rhodostethia

Genus Rissa

Genus Pagophila

Genus Xema

Genus Creagrus

Evolution[edit]

The Laridae are known from not-yet published fossil evidence since the Early Oligocene, some 30–33 Ma (million years) ago. Three gull-like species were described by Alphonse Milne-Edwards from the early Miocene of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy, France. A fossil gull from the Middle to Late Miocene of Cherry County, Nebraska, USA is placed in the prehistoric genus Gaviota;[25] apart from this and the undescribed Early Oligocene fossil, all prehistoric species were tentatively assigned to the modern genus Larus. Among those of them that have been confirmed as gulls, Milne-Edwards' "Larus" elegans and "L." totanoides from the Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of southeast France have since been separated in Laricola.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Seagull". The American Heritage Dictionary
  2. ^ "Seagull". Merriam–Webster
  3. ^ a b Pons J.-M. ; Hassanin A. ; Crochet P.-A. (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships within the Laridae (Charadriiformes: Aves) inferred from mitochondrial markers". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37 (3): 686–99. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.011. PMID 16054399. 
  4. ^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1913
  5. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
  6. ^ Merriam-Webster Online
  7. ^ "Herring Gull". The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved online 3 August 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ "AnAge entry for Larus argentatus". The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database. Retrieved 23 November 2008. 
  9. ^ Harrison, Colin J.O. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph, ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 109–111. ISBN 1-85391-186-0. 
  10. ^ "Gulls and man". The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. 13 August 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  11. ^ Alcock, J. (1998) Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach (7th edition). Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-009-4
  12. ^ Henry, Pierre-Yves; Jean-Christophe Aznar (June 2006). "Tool-use in Charadrii: Active Bait-Fishing by a Herring Gull". Waterbirds (The Waterbird Society) 29 (2): 233–234. doi:10.1675/1524-4695(2006)29[233:TICABB]2.0.CO;2. 
  13. ^ "Seagull becomes crisp shoplifter". BBC News. 20 July 2007. 
  14. ^ "Gulls' vicious attacks on whales". BBC News. 24 June 2009. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Burger, Alan; Gochfeld, Michael (1996). "Family Laridae (Gulls)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3, Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 572–599. ISBN 84-87334-20-2. 
  16. ^ Sarah Dowdey (9 July 2009). "How do seagulls drink saltwater?". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  17. ^ Ingolfsson, Agnar; Bruce T. Estrella (1978). "The development of shell-cracking behavior in herring gulls". The Auk 95 (3): 577–579. 
  18. ^ Harrison, Craig (1979). "The Association of Marine Birds and Feeding Gray Whales". Condor 81 (1): 93–95. doi:10.2307/1367866. 
  19. ^ Ridoux, Vincent (1987). "Feeding association between seabirds and killer whales, Orcinus orca, around subantarctic Crozet Islands". Canadian Journal of Zoology 65 (8): 2113–2115. doi:10.1139/z87-324. 
  20. ^ Riedman, Marianne L. (December 1982). "The Evolution of Alloparental Care in Mammals and Birds" The Quarterly Review of Biology 57 (4) 405-435
  21. ^ Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter & Helbig, Andreas J. (2004). "The herring gull complex is not a ring species". Proceedings. Biological sciences / the Royal Society 271 (1542): 893–901. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2679. PMC 1691675. PMID 15255043. 
  22. ^ Paton, Tara A.; Baker, Allan J. (2006). "Sequences from 14 mitochondrial genes provide a well-supported phylogeny of the Charadriiform birds congruent with the nuclear RAG-1 tree". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 657–667. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.01.011. PMID 16531074. 
  23. ^ Paton, T. A.; Baker, A. J.; Groth, J. G.; Barrowclough, G. F. (2003). "RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within charadriiform birds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29 (2): 268–278. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00098-8. PMID 13678682. 
  24. ^ Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A.; Székely, Tamás (2004). "A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny". BMC Evol. Biol. 4: 28. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-28. PMC 515296. PMID 15329156. 
  25. ^ A. H. Miller and Sibley (1941) described Gaviota niobrara from the upper Miocene of Nebraska
  26. ^ The "Larus" fossils and Laricola are described in Project 633: De Pietri, V. L., L. Costeur, M. Güntert, and G. Mayr. 2011. "A Revision of the Lari (Aves, Charadriiformes) from the Early Miocene of Saint-Gérand-Le-Puy (Allier, France)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31.4:812-828: on-line abstract:accessed 29 May 2014

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]