||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Personal foul (basketball). (Discuss) Proposed since February 2012.|
In basketball, a foul is an infraction of the rules concerning illegal personal contact with an opponent and/or unsportsmanlike behavior. A personal foul is the most common type of foul in basketball. Due to the nature of the game, personal fouls occur on occasion and are not always regarded as unsportsmanlike. However, a contact foul involving excessive or unjustified contact is classed as an unsportsmanlike foul (or in the National Basketball Association (NBA), a flagrant foul). It is a common perception that a home crowd sways a referee's decision, resulting in a 'home-court advantage' that is hard-fought for during the season. Frequently in the NBA, a foul is assumed when any players may possibly make contact at some point. Any number of fouls may be called against a team. Irrespective of the penalty, each foul shall be charged against the offender and penalized accordingly.
A personal foul is a foul involving personal contact between two players.
A flagrant foul, an equivalent of the other league's unsportsmanlike foul, is a player contact foul which, in the judgment of the official, is not a legitimate attempt to directly play the ball within the spirit and intent of the rules. A "Flagrant 1" in the NBA is unnecessary contact, and two such penalties leads to ejection of the player. A "Flagrant 2" is both unnecessary and excessive, and requires ejection.
A technical foul is instigated when a member of a team (players, coaches, etc.) engages in a significant infraction that goes beyond regular fouls or does not fit the description of regular fouls. Also, striking the ball with your hand and hitting your opponents hand in the process is also considered a foul.
Team fouls are fouls that count toward a team's limit for fouls within a period. When a team reaches the team foul limit, it is in a penalty situation, while the opposing team is in a bonus situation and is awarded free throws for every further foul, regardless of whether the foul was committed in the act of shooting.
What counts as a team foul and how many team fouls are permitted before the penalty is assessed depends on the level of competition:
In the NBA, team fouls include all personal fouls other than offensive fouls and double fouls. A team is in a penalty situation when it has committed four (4) team fouls in one regulation period, or three (3) team fouls in an overtime period. A team also is in a penalty situation if it commits one (1) team foul in the last two minutes of any given period, regardless of how many total team fouls have been committed in that period. When a team is in a penalty situation, any subsequent team fouls by that team result in the opposing team being awarded two free throws.
In college basketball, team fouls include all personal fouls, including offensive fouls, and a team is in a penalty situation when it has committed six (6) team fouls in a half. All subsequent team fouls (other than offensive fouls) result in the opposing team being awarded a one-and-one. When a team has committed nine (9) team fouls in one half, any subsequent team foul (other than an offensive foul) results in two free throws for the opposing team. The opposing team is then in the double bonus.
In international competition, a team foul is any foul, including offensive and technical fouls, assessed against a player on the floor. A team is in a penalty situation when it has committed four (4) team fouls in a regulation period. The fifth and all subsequent team fouls (other than offensive fouls) result in two free throws for the opposing team. Team fouls committed in an interval of play are considered as being committed in the following period. Team fouls committed in an extra period are considered as being committed in the fourth period.
- Hack-a-Shaq, strategy involving intentional fouling
- "RULE NO. 12-FOULS AND PENALTIES". NBA Rules. NBA.com. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "NCAA Basketball 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 Men's and Women's Rules". Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- "Official Basketball Rules 2012". FIBA. Retrieved 25 April 2013.