The key, officially referred to as the free throw lane by the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the restricted area by the international governing body FIBA, and colloquially as the lane or the paint, is an area in a basketball court underneath the basket bounded by the endlines, the foul lanes and other lines which are known as freebody lines, Usually painted (although unpainted on some courts with painted perimeters), it is a critical area on the court, where much of the action takes place in a game.
The key, in all games, starting with FIBA's amendments to its rules in 2010 (to be first implemented after the 2010 FIBA World Championship), is rectangular. Prior to 2006, the key in FIBA-sanctioned tournaments (mostly basketball played outside the United States, and almost all international tournaments including the World Championships and the Olympics) was trapezoidal in shape. Both NBA and FIBA keys are 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, while NCAA keys are narrower at 12 feet (3.7 m).
The most-commonly enforced rule on the key is the "three seconds rule" in which a player from the offensive team is prohibited from staying on the key for more than three seconds, or else the player's team will lose possession of the ball. Another rule enforced is the lane violation in which players from both teams are prohibited to enter the lane until after the free throw shooter releases the ball from his hands (the shooter is prohibited to enter the key until after the ball hits the rim). An innovation is the introduction of the restricted area arc directly underneath the basket where the defending player cannot force an offensive foul on the opposing player.
Each level of play has different specifications for the size and shape of the key: in American leagues, where the basketball court is measured in imperial units, the shape is rectangular, while in FIBA-sanctioned events, which use the metric system, the shape was trapezoidal, before being changed to a rectangle as well. In addition to the bounding rectangle, the key includes a free-throw circle at its "head" or "top".
Beginning after the 2010 FIBA World Championship, all FIBA-administered tournaments use a rectangular key 4.9 meters (16 ft) wide. From 1956 until 2010, FIBA-sanctioned tournaments used a trapezoidal key. The narrower end was on the free-throw line, where it was 3.6 meters (12 ft), while the wider end, at the end line, measured 6 meters (20 ft).
The free throw circle, centered at the midpoint of the free throw line, is with a universally-recognized 6 feet (1.8 m) radius from the free throw line, with boundaries of the half of the free throw circle farthest from the backboard traced in solid lines. In the NBA, the boundaries of the half closer to the basket must also be traced in a broken line in order to space players for jump balls. NBA Rule 1 (g) requires the key to contain two 6 inches (15 cm) long hash marks, 3 feet (0.91 m) from the free throw line; the marks serve no apparent purpose. The free-throw line is 15 feet (4.6 m) from the face of the backboard; the face of the backboard is 4 feet (1.2 m) away from the end-line for NBA and NCAA. The center of the basket is 1.575 meters (5.17 ft) away from the end line in FIBA tournaments, but 4.75 feet (1.45 m) away in NBA and NCAA tournaments.
|NBA||NCAA (U.S.)||FIBA (until 2010)||FIBA (since 2010)|
|In the NBA basketball courts, such as the United Center, the key is rectangular, with a restricted area arc nearest to the basket. In the NBA the half-circle nearest the basket's hash marks are required (jump balls in the free throw lane)||In NCAA basketball courts like Bartow Arena, the free throw circle's half nearest the basket's hash marks are omitted because there is no jump ball held in the free throw lane.||In FIBA-affiliated leagues, courts such as the Nokia Arena had trapezoidal keys. No half circle is required, but many sponsors use that section of the arc for advertising.||After the changes ordered by FIBA took effect on 2010, the Nokia Arena changed to rectangular keys, but the lines used to denote the 12-foot boundary in NBA keys are not present; sponsors may use the inside arc for advertising in FIBA play.|
Originally, the key was narrower than it is today and had the shape of a keyhole, measuring six feet (1.8 m) wide, hence "the key", with the free circle as the head, and the shaded lane as the body. Due to the narrowness of the key, imposing centers, such as George Mikan, dominated the paint, scoring at will. To counter this, the key was widened into 12 feet (3.7 m) from 6 feet (1.8 m) at the onset of the 1951–52 NBA season.
Men's professional basketball in the United States (notably the National Basketball Association) widened it further to 16 feet (4.9 m) on the 1964–65 NBA season to lessen the effectiveness of centers, especially Wilt Chamberlain. The NCAA retains the old 12 feet key to this day.
On April 25, 2008, the FIBA Central Board approved rule changes that included the changes in the shape of the key; the key is now rectangular and has virtually the dimensions as the key used in the NBA. In addition, the no-charge semicircles or the restricted area arc is also created.
The lane is a restricted area in which players can stay for only a limited amount of time. On all levels, a team on the offensive (in possession of the ball) is prohibited to stay inside the lane for more than three seconds; after three seconds the player will be called with a three-second violation which will result in a turnover.
In American professional basketball, the defending team is also prohibited from staying in the key for more than three seconds, unless a player is directly guarding an offensive player. If a player surpasses that time, his team will be charged with a defensive three-second violation, which will result in a technical foul where the team with the ball shoots one free throw plus ball possession and a reset of the shot clock. In FIBA-sanctioned tournaments, on the other hand, the defending team is allowed to stay on the key for an unlimited amount of time. In all cases, the count resets if the shot hits the rim or if the player steps out of the lane.
When a player is shooting free throws, there are a certain number of players under the basket beyond the boundaries of the key, each occupying a slot traced at the boundaries of the key. In most cases, the free throw shooter is behind the free throw line, while three of his opponents are beneath the basket, one side with two players, the other with one. Two of his opponents are situated nearest to the basket on both sides, while his two teammates are beside the two opponents closest to the basket, with the other player from the opposing team situated farthest from the basket. In the U.S. NCAA, there are as many as six players beyond the key, with the opposing team opting to have as much as four players, with the same arrangement as in the NBA and FIBA but with another player facing his teammate farthest to the basket. (See photographs to the right.)
All players on the foul lanes must not enter the key until the shot is released; the player shooting the free throw, and anyone on top of the key, should not pass the free throw line until the ball hits the rim. If any of the offensive players violate the rule, it will result in a turnover. For defending players, the free-throw will be retaken if the shot was missed.
Note that in FIBA play, if the shooter commits the violation, it is an automatic turnover. If the shot is successful and the shooter does not commit a violation, but other players do commit a violation, all violations are discarded. If players from the opposing teams enter the key at the same time, a jump ball would be done to determine who gets the possession of the ball (NBA) or the possession arrow rule (for all other levels); in FIBA play, that only applies if the shooter misses, since a successful attempt negates all other penalties. In all situations, lane violation penalties cannot occur if there are further free throws to be awarded.
Restricted area arc
In the NBA, Euroleague, and starting in 2010, in FIBA and NCAA play, the key has an additional area, colloquially called the restricted area arc or "restricted area", measured as an arc three feet from the basket (collegiate), four feet from the basket (NBA), or 1,25 meters (approximately 4.1 feet) (FIBA). The area is officially known as the "restricted area" in the NBA, the "restricted area arc" in the NCAA and the "no-charge semicircles" in FIBA.
The defending player in the restricted area arc cannot force a charging foul on the opposing team's player, even if the defending player has established position, thus allowing the offensive player to have full control of the area inside the restricted arc. The arc is intended to provide some benefit to offensive players who have legally gained an advantage, and to attempt to limit the number of collisions under the basket.
The Restricted area arc rule was implemented in NCAA men's basketball for the 2010–2011 season. The NCAA approved adding a visible restricted-area arc three feet from the center of the basket in Division I men’s and women’s games for 2011–2012 season. The panel delayed implementation of the arc until the 2012-13 season for Divisions II and III to allow those schools time to plan and place the restricted-area arc in their home arenas.
Points made on the key are termed as points in the paint or inside points. Historically, the area of the key where offensive players are prohibited from remaining longer than three seconds has been painted to distinguish the area from the rest of the court; hence the phrase "points in the paint." The area around the free throw circle's farthest point from the basket is called the "top of the key", and several plays revolve around this area, such as screens and pick and rolls. In American women's collegiate basketball (and for men until 2008), the three-point arc intersects at the top of the key, which could translate plays conducted in this area into three-point field goal conversions.
The intersection of the free throw line and the free throw lane is referred to as the elbow of the key.
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