Freshman 15

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The "freshman 15" is an expression commonly used in the United States and the English speaking Canada that refers to an amount (somewhat arbitrarily set at 15 pounds, and originally just 10[1]) of weight gained during a student's first year at college. In Australia and New Zealand it is sometimes referred to as First Year Fatties,[2] Fresher Spread,[3] or Fresher Five,[4] the latter referring to a five-kilogram gain.

The purported causes of this weight gain are increased alcohol intake and the consumption of fat and carbohydrate-rich cafeteria-style food and fast food in university dormitories. Many dining halls in American universities are all-you-can-eat style and offer copious dessert choices. In addition, lack of sleep may lead to overeating and weight gain, because it lowers the level of leptin. Other causes include malnutrition, stress, and decreased levels of exercise. All of these factors can affect each person in a different way. Studies confirm many of these causes. Colleges and universities have recently been cracking down on this common problem and are trying to educate people on how to prevent it. This problem has grown so much that students are focusing on how to stop the freshman 15 before it happens.[5]

Despite how commonly the Freshman 15 is asserted, an Ohio State University study showed that the average college student gains only two to three pounds in his or her first year. Additionally, it showed that college students did not gain any more weight than non-college students of the same age, and that the only factor that did increase weight gain was heavy drinking.[6]

Over-eating[edit]

College meal plans[edit]

Often, the typical freshman has just graduated from high school and commonly begins college using a predetermined college meal plan.[citation needed] College meal plans are designed to give students a wide variety of options. The most generic meal plans include a set amount of meals per day, so many per week, or so many per semester. In addition, plans may include extra money that can be spent on snacks or other meals. The meal plan was designed to give students a structured diet that allows them to decide what they want to eat and when they want to eat it.[citation needed] Therefore, students can eat several meals a day or less than three meals a day. The meal plan was designed to benefit the student but it can be abused.[7]

Dining halls[edit]

Thayer Dining Hall at Dartmouth College

The dining halls at colleges try to make dining at school convenient and comfortable. The most common dining halls found at universities or colleges around America are buffet, food court, or cafeteria style eateries.[citation needed] Dining halls can provide a wide variety and bountiful options of food. They can also provide a place where students can endlessly indulge in high calorie foods such as pizza, fried food, and ice cream. Food court style dining halls connect students with commercialized restaurants such as Taco Bell, McDonald's, and Burger King.[citation needed] When exposed to these fast food restaurants, students are generally more likely to choose them over healthier options, which leads to weight gain, especially if fast food restaurants are more prevalent on campus than other restaurants.[8] A study done on 60 students at Cornell University showed that 20% of the weight gained by the test subjects was due to the fact students were eating at all-you-can-eat dining halls.[7] Other factors included snacking, eating junk food, and meal frequency, which all contributed to the variation in weights that resulted.[citation needed]

Eating habits[edit]

Dining halls are often arranged in buffet style.

College dining halls appeal to some students and repulse others, and this is especially problematic in the first year. A study published in the Journal of Adolescent Health determined that “regular family meals provide an opportunity for the role modeling of healthy eating patterns and social interactions among family members, and may thus help to reinforce healthy eating patterns and prevent disordered eating behaviors.”[9] Thus, parents determine when, where, what and how their children eat. Away from home, often for the first time, students have no parental monitoring of their eating habits and have to discover, or rediscover, what good eating patterns are. In the process, students can overeat as well as under-eat as they seek a balance.[citation needed]

In parental-supervised eating, teenagers typically ingest the proper amount of calories. The average 18-year-old-male is 68 to 70 in (170 to 180 cm) tall and weighs between 160 and 170 lb (73 and 77 kg). The average 18-year-old-female is 64 in (160 cm) tall and weighs between 125 and 130 lb (57 and 59 kg).[10] According to a calorie counter[11] used at the Baylor College of Medicine, an average 18-year-old-male who is rarely active needs to consume approximately 2676 calories per day to maintain his weight.[12] Similarly, an average 18-year-old female who is rarely active needs to consume approximately 1940 calories per day to maintain her weight. When weight change occurs, college students are either digesting over or under their daily need of calories per day, and this is one cause of the freshmen 15.[citation needed]

In parental-supervised diets, students also usually ingest the proper proportion of foods from the different dietary groups; once removed from the parental dinner table, many college students do not eat enough fruits, vegetables, and dairy products.[13] This is because when students go off to college, they face an independence that they usually have not experienced before. Many have to learn how to go out and feed themselves instead of having their parents cook for them.[8] Research has shown that over 60 percent of college students commonly ingest sugary and fatty foods like chocolate and potato chips over fruits and vegetables. Ursell, Amanda.[14] Presently, sugar accounts for approximately 20 percent of an American’s diet, which equates to about 90 pounds of sugar per person per year.[15] This explains why a study, conducted by Stephanie Goodwin of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, states that three out of four students don’t eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily, denying students key vitamins C and E, as well as fiber.

Students may also reveal such eating disorders as binge eating, Bulimia, and Anorexia nervosa.[citation needed]

Malnutrition[edit]

Causes[edit]

Malnutrition can be caused by a number of things including inadequate or unbalanced diet, problems with digestion or absorption, or certain medical conditions.[16] Hunger is a main cause of malnutrition because if it is not satisfied then malnutrition is sure to follow. People suffer from hunger because of a lack of food and the nutrients which accompany food in the short term. If hunger proceeds for an extended period of time there is a good chance that it will lead to malnutrition. Malnutrition can affect people of every age. Though infants, children, and adolescents suffer more from malnutrition because of their need for critical nutrients for their normal development. Older people may have problems because of aging or illness. People of college age have issues with malnutrition as well, though it may not be as severe as with the younger kids or the elderly. In people in their undergraduate years of study at a four year university, malnutrition can occur due to negligence of eating and even their diet.[17]

College diet[edit]

For many college students, diets can be quite irregular.[citation needed] Meals are often skipped and weight and food intake management is often hectic or even non existent, because of the disordered schedules which tend to change daily as well as every semester depending on the class load.[citation needed] College students must deal with many different changes in living conditions when it comes to dining. Most students are used to a structured eating pattern developed in their parent's household.[citation needed] When moving from the structured environment to a more casual schedule, eating patterns can become rather irregular.[citation needed] Finances often become an issue when it comes to the type of food which is consumed and when it is consumed.[citation needed]

Many college students have a limited money supply because of the overall expense of college.[citation needed] A part-time job may be an option, but students may not have enough time to hold a part-time job. Therefore, when buying food, students will often buy as little as possible or as cheap as possible.[citation needed] This may include many low nutrient microwavable dishes.[citation needed] These types of food alone will not provide all of the nutrients necessary to fuel a person for a day. This lack of variety in the diet of a college student is not helpful in preventing malnutrition.[citation needed]

In addition to irregular eating habits, some college students spend a lot of time consuming alcoholic beverages. Many go out to parties or drink with friends on a regular basis.[citation needed] Alcohol can interfere with nutrient absorption.[citation needed] The vitamins and minerals consumed from alcohol and from food consumed with alcohol have a good chance of not being absorbed. People who drink large amounts of alcohol have a good chance of becoming malnourished or losing an unhealthy amount of weight because of the absorption blocking qualities of alcohol.[17]

Alcohol consumption[edit]

Nutrition[edit]

The body has a certain number of calories that it needs to consume in order to maintain its weight. This is determined through height, weight, age, and several other factors, which differs from person to person. When a person takes in more or fewer calories than that set limit, weight is either gained or lost. Alcohol provides a large amount of calories in a small quantity of liquid, which tends to lead to unwanted extra calories.[18]

Alcoholic Drink Calories[18]
Beer, lite, 12 oz. 100
Beer, regular, 12 oz. 150
Frozen daiquiri, 4 oz. 216
Gin, 1.5 oz. 110
Mai tai, 4 oz. 310
Margarita, 4 oz. 270
Rum, 1.5 oz. 96
Vodka, 1.5 oz. 96
Whiskey, 1.5 oz. 105
Wine spritzer, 4 oz. 49
Wine, dessert, sweet, 4 oz. 180
Vitamin B12, shown here, is necessary to maintain human life.

When drinking alcohol on a regular basis, certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies can follow. Examples of these deficiencies are as follows:

  • Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 is required to make DNA and maintain healthy nerve and red blood cells. Alcohol has been shown to decrease the levels of B12.

These deficiencies can lead to weight issues caused by malnutrition. When consuming alcohol, these vitamins and minerals must be replaced. Often this is how certain cravings arise.[18]

Unhealthy foods with alcohol[edit]

Students often turn to greasy and fatty food while drinking alcohol.

According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's research, people who tend to drink the largest amount of alcohol have the poorest eating habits compared to those who do not consume much alcohol at all. Those who do not drink a large quantity of alcohol seem to have the best quality diets. In this study researchers compared the Healthy Eating scores of 3,000 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with their overall consumption of alcohol. They used frequency, quantity, and average daily volume to measure the alcohol consumption.

The researchers found that as the alcohol quantity increased, the Health Index scores declined. As the frequency of alcohol consumed increased, the Healthy Eating scored declined. Diet quality was the poorest among those who consumed the largest quantity of alcohol. Care packages filled with unhealthy treats, sent usually by parents, was found to be the leading cause of weight gain. Those who drank less alcohol in an infrequent time frame had the best health index scores overall.[19]

Stress[edit]

It is not unusual for college students, especially freshmen, to experience abnormal levels of stress. This is more prevalent for freshmen because they are still transitioning from high school. College students can hold jobs while taking classes and may feel they have no time for studying. While freshmen might be stressed just trying to adjust to the college work load. There are hundreds of reasons for why college students get stressed, but, whatever the reason, it also can lead to weight gain. This is because when the body is stressed, it releases hormones such as adrenaline or more importantly cortisol. Cortisol has been tested to slow down the body's metabolism. Other studies have shown that when people are stressed, they have cravings for foods that are high in calories such as sweet, salty, and processed foods. Not only do people crave bad food when they are nervous or stressed, but they eat large quantities of it through continuous snacking even though they might not be hungry.[20] Therefore an increase in weight can be seen in freshmen students even though they are eating normally.

A study done by Jatturong R. Wichianson and colleagues at the University of Southern California showed a direct relationship between eating late at night (Night eating syndrome) and stress levels with college students. They used a standardized test to measure both the levels of NES and perceived stress each student had. The results showed that students that had higher levels of stress were more likely to have NES due to the inability to adapt. This study shows that students who were not able to deal with stress appropriately were more likely to use late night eating to solve their issues.[21]

Male vs. female[edit]

Nicole L. Mihalopoulos and colleagues developed a study at a private university in the Northeastern United States. Their goal was to determine if college students did truly gain weight in their freshmen year. Test subjects were made up of male and female freshmen college students who lived on campus. They took an online survey to answer questions about their eating patterns, social behaviors, as well as weight. The purpose of this was to discover if the individuals showed signs of body image issues or eating disorders.

125 freshmen were eligible for testing and the average age was 18.4. The results showed that about half of the test subjects gained weight. The men gained an average 3.7 lbs and women gained an average 1.7 lbs their freshmen year. These results disproved their hypothesis that the women would have a larger weight gain than the men, but this stays consistent with other studies done on the hypothesis. Even though only 5% of the test subjects showed a weight gain of 15 lbs or greater the authors of this study concluded that the freshmen year in college has potential for weight gain and can even lead to obesity later on in life.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wald, Matthew L. (5 April 1981). "Jodie Foster Seeks 'Normal Life' at Yale". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  2. ^ Cara (2013-05-10). "First Year Fatties | Health and Fitness". Mhsbroadcaster.org. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  3. ^ Lissa Christopher. "University life can make you fat". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  4. ^ by lcmortensen June 06, 2010 (2010-06-06). "fresher five". Urban Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  5. ^ "Freshman 15 College Weight Gain. Freshman 15 Challenge: Avoid College Weight Gain". Freshman15.com. 2010. 
  6. ^ Kim Palmer (November 1, 2011). ""Freshman 15" weight gain is a myth: study". Reuters. Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b D A Levitsky, C A Halbmaier, & G Mrdjenovic. (2004). "The freshman weight gain: a model for the study of the epidemic of obesity." International Journal of Obesity and Related Disorders, 28(11), 1435–1442. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 984421261).
  8. ^ a b Goodwin, Stephanie K., Kathy W. Hosig, Elena L. Serrano, Kerry J. Redican, Wen You, and Aaron D. Schroeder. Development of the University Health Index to Examine the Interface between Campus Environment and Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Weight in College Students. University of Arizona Ebook. Page 23. 2 September 2011.
  9. ^ "Gumberg Library Home Page - Duquesne University". Sciencedirect.com.authenticate.library.duq.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  10. ^ Schwanke, Crystal. "Average Height and Weight for a Teenager". Teens.lovetoknow.com. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ "Adult Energy Needs and BMI Calculator". Baylor College of Medicine. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  13. ^ Brown, Lora Beth. "College students can benefit by participating in a prepaid meal plan." Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Volume 105, Issue 3, March 2005, Pages 445–448.
  14. ^ “Foods to power you through your finals; A university student asks our resident nutrition expert which foods to eat to aid brainpower during exam season.” The Times. Lexis Nexis. Web. 7 June 2011.
  15. ^ Taubes, Gary. “Is Sugar Toxic?”. The New York Times: 47. LexisNexis. Web. 17 Apr. 2011.
  16. ^ "Malnutrition: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  17. ^ a b "Hunger and Malnutrition". Kidshealth.org. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  18. ^ a b c "Alcohol and Nutrition: Health and Disease Prevention - Does alcohol impact your weight?". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  19. ^ "Unhealthy Drinking, Eating Habits Linked". Alcoholism.about.com. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  20. ^ Epel, Elissa (January 2001). "Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior" 26 (1). Psychoneuroendocrinology. pp. 37–49. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  21. ^ Wichianson, Jatturong R. , Stephanie A. Bughi, Jennifer B. Unger, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Selena T. Nguyen-Rodriguez. "Perceived stress, coping and night-eating in college students". 25 Issue 3. Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA. pp. 235 – 240. 
  22. ^ Mihalopoulos, Nicole L. Peggy Auinger, Jonathan D. Klein. "The Freshman 15: Is it Real?". Journal of American College Health (Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; 2 Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, NY). Mar/Apr 2008, vol. 56 Issue 5: 531 4p. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Brown C. The information trail of the 'Freshman 15' - a systematic review of a health myth within the research and popular literature. Health Info Libr J. 2008 March;25(1):1-12.

External links[edit]