German federal election, 1919

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German federal election, 1919
Weimar Republic
1912 ←
19 January 1919 (1919-01-19)
→ 1920

All 423 seats in the Weimar National Assembly
212 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 83.0%
  First party Second party Third party
  Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-122-28A, Hermann Müller (cropped).jpg Groeber Adolf 1907.JPG Friedrich von Payer.jpg
Leader Hermann Müller Adolf Gröber Friedrich von Payer
Party SPD Centre DDP
Leader since 1919 1917 1918
Seats won 165 91 75
Popular vote 11,509,048 5,980,216 5,641,825
Percentage 37.9% 19.7% 18.6%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Nicola Perscheid - Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner.jpg Hugohaase.jpg
Leader Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner Hugo Haase Rudolf Heinze
Party DNVP USPD DVP
Leader since 1919 1917 1919
Seats won 44 22 19
Popular vote 3,121,479 2,317,290 1,345,638
Percentage 10.3% 7.6% 4.4%

Nationalversammlung Karte.png

Electoral results by districts (in German), strongest parties:

– SPD – USPD – Centre/BVP – DNVP
Hatched: occupied territory (Alsace-Lorraine, Posen) pending Treaty of Versailles


Chancellor/Chairman Council of the People's Deputies before election

Friedrich Ebert
SPD

Resulting head of government

Philipp Scheidemann, Ministerpräsident
SPD

Federal elections were held in Germany on 19 January 1919,[1] although members of the standing army in the east voted for their representatives only on 2 February. The elections were the first of the new Weimar Republic following World War I and the Revolution of 1918–19. It was also the first German election held using proportional representation and with women's suffrage. It is also reckoned as the first truly free and fair all-German election, as it was the first to be held after the scrapping of the old constituencies that grossly over-represented rural areas. The voting age was lowered to 20 from 25 in the last Reichstag election of 1912.

Austrian citizens living in Germany were allowed to vote, in the same way that German citizens living in Austria were also allowed to vote in the Austrian Constitutional Assembly election in the same year.[2]

From its inaugural session on 6 February, the National Assembly (Nationalversammlung) functioned as both a constituent assembly and unicameral legislature. On 13 February, provisional Reichspräsident (President) Friedrich Ebert appointed Philipp Scheidemann Reichsministerpräsident (Minister President, the office was renamed Chancellor only when the Weimar Constitution came into force in August 1919). Scheidemann's government replaced the revolutionary Rat der Volksbeauftragten (Council of the People's Deputies). The supporting parties of the "Weimar Coalition" (SPD, Zentrum and DDP) together won 76.2% of the votes cast. Voter turnout was 83.0%.[3]

Results[edit]

Party Votes % Seats
Election of 19 January 1919
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 11,509,048 37.86 163
Centre Party 5,980,216 19.67 91
German Democratic Party 5,641,825 18.56 75
German National People's Party 3,121,479 10.27 44
Independent Social Democratic Party 2,317,290 7.62 22
German People's Party 1,345,638 4.43 19
Bavarian Peasants' League 275,125 0.91 4
German-Hanoverian Party 77,226 0.25 1
Schleswig-Holsteinische Bauern- und Landarbeiterdemokratie 57,913 0.19 1
Braunschweig State Electoral Association 56,858 0.19 1
Mecklenburg Village League 10,891 0.04 0
German Peace Party 3,503 0.01 0
German Officials', Employees' and Middle Class Party 1,438 0.00 0
Christian Social Party 664 0.00 0
Middle Class Party 640 0.00 0
German Social Aristocracy 279 0.00 0
Democratic Middle Class Party 208 0.00 0
Social Reform Party 45 0.00 0
Invalid/blank votes 124,562
Total 30,524,848 100 421
Registered voters/turnout 37,362,100 83.02
Election of 2 February 1919 – representatives of standing troops in the East
Social Democratic Party 7,804 60.04 2
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany 1,945 14.96 0
German Democratic Party 1,681 12.93 0
Non-partisan lists 1,389 10.69 0
German People's Party 74 0.57 0
German National People's Party 62 0.48 0
Centre Party 43 0.33 0
Invalid/blank votes 390
Total 13,388 100 2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver, Gonschior.de
Popular Vote
SPD
  
37.86%
Zentrum
  
19.67%
DDP (FVP/NLP)
  
18.56%
DNVP (DKP/DRP)
  
10.27%
USPD
  
7.62%
DVP (NLP/DRP)
  
4.43%
Other
  
1.58%
Reichstag seats
SPD
  
38.72%
Zentrum
  
21.62%
DDP (FVP/NLP)
  
17.81%
DNVP (DKP/DRP)
  
10.45%
USPD
  
5.23%
DVP (NLP/DRP)
  
4.51%
Other
  
1.66%

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p762 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Austria votes today. – German Part of Former Dual Monarchy Chooses Its Constituent Assembly., The New York Times, 16 February 1919 (PDF)
  3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p776