HIV/AIDS in Mozambique
Mozambique is facing a severe, generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic, but the impact is not uniformly distributed. In 2005, the prevalence of HIV infection among adults ages 15 to 49 was estimated to be 16.1 percent. The primary mode of transmission is through heterosexual contact, with women at much greater risk for HIV infection than men. Young women ages 15 to 24 have an estimated HIV prevalence of 10.7 percent, compared to a prevalence rate of 3.6 percent among young men in the same age group. A civil war restricted movement within and outside the country until 1992, but returning refugees, as well as economic and commercial activity since then has rapidly fueled HIV prevalence to levels nearly as high as those in neighboring countries. Other populations with high HIV prevalence rates include mobile populations, people in prostitution, and those living close to major transportation routes.1 Mozambique also suffers co-epidemics of tuberculosis and malaria in addition to seasonal cholera outbreaks, all of which exacerbate the impact of HIV/AIDS.
In 2010, the rate is estimated to be 11.5%, distributed amongst 13.1% of female and 9.2% of male adults aged 15–49. An estimated 5.7 million people are affected.
As Mozambique scales up HIV/AIDS programs and more people are reached with prevention, treatment and care services, it is vital to strengthen the capacity of Mozambican individuals and institutions to manage and deliver these services. According to the 2006 Human Development Report, Mozambique has approximately three physicians for every 100,000 people. Shortages of other health providers (such as nurses, pharmacists and lab technicians) are comparable. Outside of the health system, where the multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS response depends fundamentally on community-based initiatives and volunteers, Mozambique also is severely disadvantaged, with an adult literacy rate of only 46.5 percent (31.4 percent among women) and high levels of stigma and discrimination.
- "2008 Country Profile: Mozambique". U.S. Department of State (2008). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- 11.5 percent HIV/AIDS prevalence in Mozambique: report