|Diversity and distribution within the genus|
Gracula is a genus of mynas, tropical members of the starling family of birds. Until recently only two species were recognised, G. religiosa and G. ptilogenys; earlier still all Gracula were considered to belong to a very variable species commonly called hill myna. But three additional subspecies of G. religiosa are increasingly being considered distinct species.
The hill mynas are resident breeders typically found in forest and cultivation. The nest is built in a hole and the usual clutch is two or three eggs.
These 25–30 cm long birds have glossy black plumage and large white wing patches which are obvious in flight. The bill and strong legs are bright yellow or orange, and there are yellow wattles on the head, the shape and position of which vary with species. The sexes are similar, but juveniles have a duller bill.
Traditionally, the Sri Lanka hill myna was considered a subspecies of the common hill myna, but today all major authorities recognise them as separate. Comparably, the Enggano, Nias and Southern hill mynas have traditionally been treated as subspecies of the common hill myna; a treatment still preferred by some authorities.
- Common hill myna, Gracula religiosa
- Southern hill myna, Gracula indica
- Enggano hill myna, Gracula enganensis.
- Nias hill myna, Gracula robusta
- Sri Lanka hill myna, Gracula ptilogenys
- Grimmett, Richard; Inskipp, Carol; Inskipp, Tim (1999). Birds of India. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04910-6.
- Feare, Chris; Craig, Adrian (1999). Starlings and Mynas. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-7136-3961-X.
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