Hospital emergency codes

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For the computer virus, see Code Red (computer worm). For the Portall Album , see Code Black (album). For the Icehouse Album, see Code Blue (album). For the practice of corruption among U.S. law enforcement, see Blue Code of Silence. For the Caroline Cooney novel, see Code Orange (novel). For the American punk band, see Code Orange (band).

Hospital Emergency Codes are used in hospitals worldwide[citation needed] to alert staff to various emergencies. The use of codes is intended to convey essential information quickly and with minimal misunderstanding to staff, while preventing stress and panic among visitors to the hospital. These codes may be posted on placards throughout the hospital, or printed on employee identification badges for ready reference.

Back of a hospital ID badge showing disaster codes.

Hospital emergency codes may denote different events at different hospitals, including nearby ones. Because many physicians work at more than one facility, this may lead to confusion in emergencies, so uniform systems have been proposed.

Colour code standardization[edit]

  • Australia:
    • Australian hospitals and other buildings are covered by Australian Standard 4083 (1997) and many are in the process of changing to those standards.[1]
  • Canada:
    • In Ontario, a standard emergency response code set by the Ontario Hospital Association is used, with minor variations for some hospitals:[2][3][4]
      • Code Black: Bomb Threat/Suspicious Object
      • Code Blue: Cardiac Arrest/Medical Emergency - Adult
      • Code Brown: In-facility Hazardous Spill
      • Code Green: Evacuation (Precautionary)
        • Code Green STAT: Evacuation (Crisis)
      • Code Grey: Infrastructure Loss or Failure
        • Code Grey Button-down: External Air Exclusion
      • Code Orange: Disaster
        • Code Orange CBRN: CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear) Disaster
      • Code Pink: Cardiac Arrest/Medical Emergency - Infant/Child
      • Code Purple: Hostage Taking
      • Code Red: Fire
      • Code White: Violent/Behavioural Situation
      • Code Yellow: Missing Person
    • Codes used in British Columbia, prescribed by the Ministry of Health,[5] are similar to those used in Ontario, with the exception of Code Purple (which is not used).
    • The various emergency preparedness services of the health regions in Alberta have also begun to discuss standardization of their colour code systems.
  • United States of America:
    • In 2000, the Hospital Association of Southern California (HASC)[6][7] determined that a uniform code system is needed after "three persons were killed in a shooting incident at an area medical center after the wrong emergency code was called." While codes for fire (red) and medical emergency (blue) were similar in 90% of California hospitals queried, 47 different codes were used for infant abduction and 61 for combative person. In light of this, HASC published a handbook titled "Healthcare Facility Emergency Codes: A Guide for Code Standardization" listing various codes and has strongly urged hospitals to voluntarily implement the revised codes.
    • In 2003, Maryland mandated that all acute hospitals in the state have uniform codes.[8]

Codes by colour[edit]

Note: Different codes are used in different hospitals.

Code Blue[edit]

Cardiac arrest[edit]

"Code Blue" is generally used to indicate a patient requiring resuscitation or in need of immediate medical attention, most often as the result of a respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest. When called overhead, the page takes the form of "Code Blue, (floor), (room)" to alert the resuscitation team where to respond. Every hospital, as a part of its disaster plans, sets a policy to determine which units provide personnel for code coverage. In theory any medical professional may respond to a code, but in practice the team makeup is limited to those with Advanced Cardiac Life Support or other equivalent resuscitation training. Frequently these teams are staffed by physicians (from anesthesia and internal medicine in larger medical centers or the Emergency physician in smaller ones), respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and nurses. A code team leader will be a physician in attendance on any code team; this individual is responsible for directing the resuscitation effort and is said to "run the code". This phrase was coined at Bethany Medical Center in Kansas City, Kansas.[9] The term "code" by itself is commonly used by medical professionals as a slang term for this type of emergency, as in "calling a code" or describing a patient in arrest as "coding".

  • Australian Standard[1]
  • Californian Standard[6]

In some hospitals or other medical facilities, the resuscitation team may purposely respond slowly to a patient in cardiac arrest, a practice known as slow code, or may fake the response altogether for the sake of the patient's family, a practice known as show code.[10] Such practices are ethically controversial,[11] and are banned in some jurisdictions.[citation needed]

Variations[edit]

  • "Plan Blue" was used at St. Vincent's Hospital in New York City to indicate arrival of a trauma patient so critically injured that even the short delay of a stop in the ER for evaluation could be fatal; the "Plan Blue" was called out to alert the surgeon on call to go immediately to the ER entrance and take the patient for immediate surgery. This was illustrated in an episode of Trauma: Life in the ER, entitled "West Side Stories".

"Doctor" Codes[edit]

"Doctor" codes are often used in hospital settings for announcements over a general loudspeaker or paging system that might cause panic or endanger a patient's privacy. Most often, "Doctor" codes take the form of "Paging Dr. _____", where the doctor's "name" is a code word for a dangerous situation or a patient in crisis. e.g.: "Paging Doctor Firestone, third floor," to indicate a possible fire in the location specified. "Paging Dr. Stork" normally indicates that a woman is in labor and needs immediate assistance.[citation needed]

Codes by emergency[edit]

Bomb threat[edit]

Cardio-Respiratory Arrest[edit]

  • Code Blue (Child) - Cardio-Respiratory Arrest Age >30 days to 13 years in Ontario[4]
  • Code Pink - Cardio-Respiratory Arrest Neonatal Age <30 days in Ontario[4]
  • Code Blue: Cardio-respiratory arrest or medical emergency for Adult (El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, CA)[13]
  • Code Pink - Used as cardiac arrest in an infant at Miami Valley Hospital in Dayton.
  • Code White-Neonatal: Cardio-respiratory arrest or medical emergency for <28 days (El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, CA)[13]
  • Code White-Pediatric: Cardio-respiratory arrest or medical emergency for >28 days (El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, CA)[13]
  • Code 2-Pediatric: Pediatric cardio-respiratory arrest (Health Partners Regions Hospital)
  • Code 2-Adult: Adult cardio-respiratory arrest (Health Partners Regions Hospital)
  • Code 25: Respiratory Distress. (Houston, Texas).[14] Number codes are used instead of color codes to prevent curious non-essential people from cluttering the halls near the emergency area and delaying care.

Child abduction/missing person[edit]

Combative person/assault[edit]

  • Code Green: UnityPoint Health (Formerly known as Iowa Health System)
  • Code North: Stanford University Medical Center
  • Code Gray: Angry/Violent patient or visitor (El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, CA)[13]
  • Code Grey: Combative Person with no weapon (HASC)
  • Code Silver: Combative Person with a weapon (HASC)
  • Code Black: Personal Attack (Australian Standard Code)
  • Code White: Violent Patient (Markham Stouffville Hospital), Quebec and Ontario
  • Code Atlas: Virginia Healthcare System
  • Security Stat: Heartland Regional Medical Center
  • "Mr. or Dr. Strong" to (location), at other hospitals (Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY - Also Code 5)
  • "Dr. Heavy" to (location), at other hospitals (Nassau University Medical Center, Nassau, NY, Mather Hospital, Suffolk, NY)
  • "Dr. Armstrong" to (location), at other hospitals
  • Code Yellow: Cheyenne Regional Medical Center
  • Yellow Alert: Health Partners Regions Hospital
  • Code 21: University of Minnesota Medical Center
  • Strong Alert (William Beaumont Hospitals Royal Oak, Troy, Grosse Pointe MI)
  • Code Violet: Nationwide Children's Hospital
  • Code Secure: Security needed to deal with a combative patient or family member.

Evacuation[edit]

  • Code White: Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.
  • Code Orange: Australian Standard.
  • Code Green: Quebec and Ontario
  • Under the HASC Emergency Code System, evacuation would be included in an Emergency Alert, Code Triage.

Fire[edit]

  • Usually Code Red.
    • Australian Standard.[1]
    • California Standard.[6]
    • Joint Commission standard.
    • Ontario Hospital Association colour code standard[4]
  • Sometimes Dr. Red, Dr. Pyro, or Dr. Firestone.
  • Sometimes "Evacuation Bell"

Code Red.

  • Park Nicollet Methodist Hospital
  • Dr. Red Cheyenne Regional Medical Center
  • El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, CA[13]
  • Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Oregon
  • Long Grass Health Partners Regions Hospital
  • Code F (University of Michigan Hospitals)
  • Red Alert (William Beaumont Hospitals, Royal Oak, Troy, Grosse Pointe, MI)

Hazardous Materials Spill/Release/Decontamination[edit]

  • Code Orange: Nationwide Children's Hospital, El Camino Hospital (Mountain View, CA)

Hostage Situation[edit]

Internal disaster[edit]

  • Code Green: Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.
  • Code Grey: University Health Network, Toronto
  • Code Yellow: Stanford University Medical Center (old system), Australian Standard
  • Code Triage - Internal: HASC, El Camino Hospital,Mountain View, CA[13]
  • Code Orange: Hazardous Materials spill (El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, CA)[13]
  • Code 4: Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY
  • Code Alert sometimes denotes disaster.
  • Code Brown - Internal Crisis / Hazardous Spill in Ontario / e.g. Sewer backup and overflow .

Lockdown/limited access[edit]

  • Lima Delta: UnityPoint Health (Formerly known as Iowa Health System)
  • Code Orange: Ontario Used in Ontario hospitals to indicate an external disaster with mass casualties, CBRNE and Pandemic. Lockdown or controlled facility access is often used as part of the response. Volunteers, Families and Students were denied access during SARS Outbreak of 2003.
  • Code Red: Most commonly used by schools to indicate that a dangerous and/or harmful person is on campus.
  • Code Silver:Carilion Clinic Hospitals

Mass-casualty incident / External Disaster[edit]

  • Code Brown: Australian standard
  • Code Yellow: Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Nationwide Children's Hospital
  • "MASCAL" may also be used
  • Code 10, Code 20, or Code 99: Heartland Regional Medical Center, Brookdale Hospital
  • Code Orange: Calgary Health Region, Quebec and Ontario
  • Code Triage: Scripps Healthcare San Diego; Hoag Hospital Newport Beach; Seton Medical Center, Daly City, California; El Camino Hospital, Mountain View, CA.[13]
  • Code 1000: Fletcher Allen Medical Center; Burlington, VT
  • Code Orange: Park Nicollet Methodist Hospital
  • Code Orange: Cheyenne Regional Medical Center
  • Orange Alert: Health Partners Regions Hospital
  • Code 7: Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (aka External Disaster)
  • Mr. Victor Charlie-MVC-Multiple Vehicle Collision, Ottawa Emergency Services and First Responders (prepare for Code Orange)

Severe weather[edit]

  • Code Brown: Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
  • Code Black: Mercy Health Center (Oklahoma City); Denton Regional Medical Center; Iowa Health System (Severe Warning); Parkland Hospital (Dallas)[15]
  • Code Gray: Cook Children's Medical Center, Fort Worth, TX; Iowa Health System (Severe Watch); St. John's Regional Medical Center, Joplin, MO
  • Code Yellow: Heartland Regional Medical Center
  • Code Green: Schools in Volusia County, Florida

Theft/armed robbery[edit]

  • Code Amber: Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center; New Jersey Hospital Association

Total divert[edit]

  • A status sometimes called "Critical Care Bypass" (Ontario),[16] "Total Divert", "triage situation", "Saturation Alert" or "High Occupancy" (University of Michigan Health System).
  • Generally used by hospitals as a status indicator for EMS/ambulance services denoting that the issuing ER/trauma facility has reached maximum patient capacity and should not receive any more new patients if at all possible.
  • A variation on "Total Divert", called "Bypass", is used at many U.S. hospitals to indicate emergency facilities at or over maximum capacity; this variation was featured in the "Road Warriors" episode of Trauma: Life in the E.R.. As explained by a trauma nurse in the episode, the status change does not always keep new patients from arriving.
  • Can be denoted as Code Purple or Code Yellow in some hospitals.
  • The Joint Commission status is called "on diversion" (for a class of patients) and "total diversion" (not receiving any patient), referring to diversionary contracts required by EMTALA.

Other Codes[edit]

  • Code Omega - Life-Threatening Blood Loss. Used in Ontario[4]
  • Code Omega - (Obstetrics) Life Threatening Blood Loss in a Peri-Partum Woman. Used in Ontario[4]
  • Gold Alert - Unstable Patient(s) with Multiple System Trauma en route. Kentucky.[17]
  • Code 33 - Obstetrical Crisis in Ontario[4]
  • Code Brown - Patient has defecated in the bed. Used as a "tongue-in-cheek" among hospital staff.
  • Code 99 - Stroke Patient (Park Nicollet Methodist Hospital)
  • Incoming Code 99 - Stroke patient arriving by ambulance or helicopter (Park Nicollet Methodist Hospital)
  • Trauma Alert - Trauma Patient(s) en route.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c AS 4083-1997 Planning for emergencies-Health care facilities
  2. ^ https://www.oha.com/Services/HealthSafety/Safety/SafetyGroup/Documents/EmergencyToolkit_Feb9[1].pdf>
  3. ^ http://www.nygh.on.ca/Default.aspx?cid=1687&lang=1
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h http://sunnybrook.ca/content/?page=Patient_EmergPrep_Codes
  5. ^ http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/emergency/pdf/standardized-hospital-colour-codes.pdf
  6. ^ a b c LISTSERV 15.5 – MEDLIB-L Archives
  7. ^ California Healthcare Association News Briefs July 12, 2002Vol. 35 No. 27
  8. ^ DSD.state.md.us
  9. ^ Unplugged: Reclaiming Our Right to Die in America, Wiliam H. Colby, page 63
  10. ^ "Slow Codes, Show Codes and Death". New York Times (New York Times Company). 22 August 1987. Retrieved 2013-04-06. 
  11. ^ DePalma, Judith A.; Miller, Scott; Ozanich, Evelyn; Yancich, Lynne M. (November 1999). ""Slow" Code: Perspectives of a Physician and Critical Care Nurse". Critical Care Nursing Quarterly (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins) 22 (3): 89–99. doi:10.1097/00002727-199911000-00014. ISSN 1550-5111. 
  12. ^ "Hospital Emergency Codes - Hospital Association of Southern California (HASC)". Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l http://facultyfiles.deanza.edu/gems/oneillpatricia/ECHClinicalStudentOrientatio.pdf
  14. ^ Code Red/Code Blue/Code whatever....what do you have/what are they for? danigirl58 (Posted: Mar 28, 2006)
  15. ^ ABC News, Tornadoes tear through Dallas, April 3 2012.
  16. ^ CMAJ.ca
  17. ^ a b Code Red/Code Blue/Code whatever....what do you have/what are they for? Page 1 - HappyNurse2005 (Mar 28, 2006)

External links[edit]