Hospital information system

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A hospital information system (HIS) is an element of health informatics that focuses mainly on the administrational needs of hospitals. In many implementations, a HIS is a comprehensive, integrated information system designed to manage all the aspects of a hospital's operation, such as medical, administrative, financial, and legal issues and the corresponding processing of services.

Hospital information system[edit]

One of the most important issues is health services. Hospitals provide a medical assistance to people. The best introduction for hospital information systems has been made in 2011 International Conference on Social Science and Humanity, which is;

Hospital Information Systems can be defined as massive, integrated systems that support the comprehensive information requirements of hospitals, including patient, clinical, ancillary and financial management. Hospitals are extremely complex institutions with large departments and units coordinate care for patients. Hospitals are becoming more reliant on the ability of hospital information system (HIS) to assist in the diagnosis, management and education for better and improved services and practices. In health organization such as hospitals, implementation of HIS inevitable due to many mediating and dominating factors such as organization, people and technology.[1]

Architecture[edit]

Hospital Information System architecture has three main levels, Central Government Level, Territory Level, and Patient Carrying Level. Generally all types of hospital information system (HIS) are supported in client-server architectures for networking and processing. Most work positions for HIS are currently resident types. Mobile computing began with wheeled PC stands. Now tablet computers and smartphone applications are used.

Enterprise HIS with Internet architectures have been successfully deployed in Public Healthcare Territories and have been widely adopted by further entities.[2] The Hospital Information System (HIS) is a province-wide initiative designed to improve access to patient information through a central electronic information system. HIS’s goal is to streamline patient information flow and its accessibility for doctors and other health care providers. These changes in service will improve patient care quality and patient safety over time.

The patient carries system record patient information, patient laboratory test results, and patient’s doctor information. Doctors can access easily person information, test results, and previous prescriptions. Patient schedule organization and early warning systems can provide by related systems.

A cloud computing alternative is not recommended, as data security of individual patient records services are not well accepted by the public.[3][4][5][6]

Functional Split[edit]

HIS has data warehousing as the main topic, hence a more static model of information management. HIS is often composed of one or several software components with specialty-specific extensions, as well as of a large variety of sub-systems in medical specialties from a multi-vendor market. Specialized implementations name for example Laboratory Information System (LIS), Policy and Procedure Management System,[7] Radiology Information System (RIS) or Picture archiving and communication system (PACS).

The other more flow-oriented approach to information management is often defined as Clinical Information System (CIS). Such CISs are designed to be operated according to different aims of workflow management and hence get implemented separately from HISs in that

  • HIS as a patient data information system focuses the retrospective case-related data with the doctor's letters and the electronic patient record.
  • CIS as a human resource information system focuses the live and dynamic aspects of process-related workflow management and clinical-state-related data and

However, the naming differences are not standardised between suppliers.

Architecture is based on a distributed approach and on the utilization of standard software products complying with the industrial and market standards must be utilized (such as: UNIX operating systems, MS-Windows, local area network based on Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols, relational database management systems based on SQL language or Oracle databases, C programming language).

Implementing HISs and CISs gets more and more based on smart phones and tablets as the mobile front-ends for mobile work at bedside.

Aim[edit]

As an area of medical informatics the aim of an HIS is to achieve the best possible support of patient care and outcome and administration by presenting data where needed and acquiring data when generated with networked electronic data processing. Hospital Information Systems main demands are correct data storage, reliable usage, fast to reach data, secure to keep data on storage and lower cost of usage.

Hospital Information Systems provide a common source of information about a patient’s health history. The system have to keep data in secure place and controls who can reach the data in certain circumstances. These systems enhance the ability of health care professionals to coordinate care by providing a patient’s health information and visit history at the place and time that it is needed. Patient’s laboratory test information also visual results such as X-ray may reachable from professionals. HIS provide internal and external communication among health care providers.

The HIS may control organizations, which is Hospital in these case, official documentations, financial situation reports, personal data, utilities and stock amounts, also keeps in secure place patients information, patients medical history, prescriptions, operations and laboratory test results.

The HIS may protect organizations, handwriting error, overstock problems, conflict of scheduling personnel, official documentation errors like tax preparations errors.

Organizational structure[edit]

The head of the HIS department is a person who is qualified and experienced in computer systems. Graduate and postgraduate computer diploma/degree holders are available. Depending on the set-up and the extent of computerization and its sophistication, the department may have some or all of the following staff in addition to the head of the department.

Organizational structure refers to levels of management within a hospital and these levels allow efficient management of hospital departments. The structure helps one understand the hospital’s chain of command and work flows. Common organizational structure groups are Administrative Services, Information system Services, Therapeutic Services, Diagnostic Services, and Support Services. Hospital Information systems also can extend as Database administrator, interface developer, and users which are patients and official users.

Systems administrator/database administrator[edit]

The systems administrator-database administrator is responsible for systems administration to ensure high uptime of the system and for handling all database back-up and restoration activities.

Application specialist and trainer[edit]

The hospital’s application specialist together with the software vendor is involved in all the activities required for implementing the application software. Trainers train and retrain new employees in the hospital.

Hardware/network engineers[edit]

Hardware/Network engineers are responsible for maintaining the hardware and network systems in the hospital. They undertake all troubleshooting activities that may be required to keep the system online and patient data available to doctors and nurses.

Standardization[edit]

There is no standardization but for data formats and for data interchange, as with the HL7 initiative supported by ISO.

Benefits of HIS[edit]

  • Easy access to doctors data to generate varied records, including classification based on demographic, gender, age, and so on. It is especially beneficial at ambulatory (out-patient) point, hence enhancing continuity of care. As well as, Internet-based access improves the ability to remotely access such data.[8]
  • It helps as a decision support system for the hospital authorities for developing comprehensive health care policies.[9]
  • Efficient and accurate administration of finance, diet of patient, engineering, and distribution of medical aid. It helps to view a broad picture of hospital growth
  • Improved monitoring of drug usage, and study of effectiveness. This leads to the reduction of adverse drug interactions while promoting more appropriate pharmaceutical utilization.
  • Enhances information integrity, reduces transcription errors, and reduces duplication of information entries.[10]
  • Hospital software is easy to use and eliminates error caused by handwriting. New technology computer systems give perfect performance to pull up information from server or cloud servers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Shortliffe, E.H., and Cimino, J.J. eds. Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine (3rd edition). New York: Springer, 2006.
  • National Institute of Clinical Excellence, Principles of Best Practice in Clinical Audit. London: NICE, 2002. (ISBN 1-85775-976-1)
  • Olmeda, Christopher J. (2000). Information Technology in Systems of Care. Delfin Press. ISBN 978-0-9821442-0-6
  • Payne, P.R., Greaves, A.W., and Kipps, T.J. CRC Clinical Trials Management System (CTMS): an integrated information management solution for collaborative clinical research, AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2003:967.