Human Tissue Authority
The Human Tissue Authority is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom that regulates the removal, storage, use and disposal of human bodies, organs and tissue for a number of scheduled purposes such as research, transplantation, and education and training.
It was created by the Human Tissue Act 2004 and came into being on 1 April 2005 and its statutory functions began on April 1, 2006. As of 2006[update], the authority was chaired by Baroness Hayman and since January 2010 has been chaired by Baroness Diana Warwick.
Its objectives are to:
- ...be the regulating authority for matters relating to activities such as anatomical and post-mortem examinations, transplantations and the storage of human material for education, training and research.
It also acts as the UK competent authority under the EU Tissue and Cells Directives.
The Human Tissue Act
The Human Tissue Act 2004 repeals and replaces the Human Tissue Act 1961, the Anatomy Act 1984 and the Human Organ Transplants Act 1989 as they relate to England and Wales, and the corresponding Orders in Northern Ireland. The Unrelated Transplant Regulatory Authority (ULTRA) and the post of HM Inspector of Anatomy were abolished and their functions transferred to the Authority.
The Act makes consent the fundamental principle underpinning the lawful storage and use of body parts, organs and tissue from the living or the deceased for specified health-related purposes and public display. It also covers the removal of such material from the deceased. It lists the purposes for which consent is required (the scheduled purposes).
The act notably prohibited private individuals from covertly collecting biological samples (hair, fingernails, etc.) for DNA analysis, but excluded medical and criminal investigations from the offence.
Code of Conduct, and Jurisdiction
According to the Human Tissue Act, the HTA and its authority are governed by a code of conduct  for the handling of human tissue, and the bodies of the deceased, but does not give the HTA authority over exhumed remains from archaeological sites.
"The Human Tissue Act (HT Act) 2004 established the Human Tissue Authority (HTA) as the regulatory body in England, Wales and Northern Ireland for all matters concerning the removal, retention, use and disposal of human tissue (excluding gametes and embryos) for specified purposes. This includes responsibility for licensing the public display of whole bodies, body parts and human tissue from the deceased (if they died after 1 September 1906)." 
The Act governs England, Wales and Northern Ireland. There is separate legislation in Scotland, the Human Tissue (Scotland) Act 2006 and the Authority performs certain tasks on behalf of the Scottish Executive (approval of living donation and licensing of establishments storing tissue for human application).
The Authority consists of a Chair and eleven Members who have been appointed by the Secretary of State for Health. They come from a variety of medical, scientific, legal, administrative and political backgrounds.
The Chair and six of the members are lay (i.e. without a professional interest in the area of human tissue). The remaining members are professionals drawn from some of the groups most directly affected by the Act. The Welsh Assembly and the Northern Ireland Office has each nominated one member.
The members of the authority are as follows:
- Baroness Diana Warwick (Chair)
- Prof Michael Banner
- Ms Jodi Berg
- Mr Brian Coulter
- Professor Susan Dilly
- Rosie Glazebrook
- Ms Pamela J Goldberg
- Suzanne McCarthy
- Professor Gurch Randhawa
- Dr Andrew Scott Reid
- Mr Keith Rigg
- Ms Catharine Seddon
The biographies for each Authority Member are available on the official website.
- Human Tissue Act 2004, UK, available in pdf.
- Human Tissue Authority
- Announcement of membership - page at the Wellcome Trust
- Department of Health list of arm's length bodies
- Tiss.EU - European Union funded project to determine the effect of Directive 2004/23/EC on setting standards of quality and safety for the donation, procurement, testing, processing,
preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells.