Jackie Mitchell

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For the American and Canadian football player, see Jackie Mitchell (football).
Jackie Mitchell
Pitcher
Born: (1913-08-29)August 29, 1913
Chattanooga, Tennessee
Died: January 7, 1987(1987-01-07) (aged 74)
Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia
Threw: left
Professional debut
Southern Association: April 2, 1931 for the Chattanooga Lookouts
Last professional appearance
1937
Teams

Virne Beatrice "Jackie" Mitchell Gilbert (August 29, 1913 – January 7, 1987)[1] was one of the first female pitchers in professional baseball history. Pitching for the Chattanooga Lookouts Class AA minor league baseball team in an exhibition game against the New York Yankees, she struck out Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in succession.[2]

Early life[edit]

Mitchell was born August 29, 1913 in Chattanooga, Tennessee.[3] to Virne Wall Mitchell and Dr. Joseph Mitchell.[4][5] When she learned how to walk, her father took her to the baseball diamond and taught her the basics of the game. Her next door neighbor, Dazzy Vance, taught her to pitch and showed her his "drop ball", a type of breaking ball.[6] Later, Vance would pitch in the major leagues and eventually be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.[7]

When Mitchell was 17, she played for a women's team in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and attended a special baseball school in Atlanta, Georgia. There, she attracted the attention of Joe Engel, the president and owner of the Chattanooga Lookouts, who offered her a contract to play for the 1931 season. On March 28, Mitchell signed the contract and became an official member of the Lookouts, a Class AA minor league team.[citation needed]

Against the New York Yankees[edit]

The New York Yankees and the Chattanooga Lookouts were scheduled to play an exhibition game in Chattanooga, Tennessee on April 1, 1931. Due to rain the game was postponed until the next day. Seventeen-year-old Jackie Mitchell, brought in to pitch in the first inning after the starting pitcher had given up a double and a single, faced Babe Ruth. After taking a ball, Ruth swung and missed at the next two pitches. Mitchell's fourth pitch to Ruth was a called third strike. Babe Ruth glared and verbally abused the umpire before being led away by his teammates to sit to wait for another batting turn. The crowd roared for Jackie. Babe Ruth was quoted in a Chattanooga newspaper as having said:

"I don't know what's going to happen if they begin to let women in baseball. Of course, they will never make good. Why? Because they are too delicate. It would kill them to play ball every day."[8][9]

Next up was the Iron Horse Lou Gehrig, who swung through the first three pitches to strike out. Jackie Mitchell became famous for striking out two of the greatest baseball players in history.

Later career[edit]

A few days after Mitchell struck out Ruth and Gehrig, baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis voided her contract and declared women unfit to play baseball as the game was "too strenuous."[5][10] Mitchell continued to play professionally, barnstorming with the House of David, a men's team famous for their very long hair and long beards.[11] While travelling with the House of David team, she would sometimes wear a fake beard for publicity.[12] She retired in 1937 at the age of 23 after becoming furious since her story about playing baseball was being used something of a side show – once being asked to pitch while riding a donkey.[10] She refused to come out of retirement when the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League formed in 1943.[12] Major League Baseball would formally ban the signing of women to contracts on June 21, 1952.[10] The ban lasted until 1992 when Carey Schueler was "drafted" by the Chicago White Sox for the 1993 season.[8]

In 1982 Mitchell was invited to throw out the ceremonial first pitch for the Chattanooga Lookouts on their season opening day.[13]

Jackie Mitchell died in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, on January 7, 1987, and was buried in Forest Hills Cemetery in Chattanooga.[14][15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Social Security Death Index Free Family History Records. "VIRNE GILBERT (1912–1987), Social Security Death Index". Mocavo.com. Retrieved 2014-04-12. 
  2. ^ Inspirational female aþletes who won in a man’s sport, Sports management degree, 2010 
  3. ^ "Please wait". Interactive.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. (registration required)
  4. ^ Broome, Andy (2009). Her Curves Were Too Much for Them. Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  5. ^ a b "Six women who beat the boys - CNN.com". CNN. 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  6. ^ Patrick, Jean L.S. (2004). "Jackie Mitchell The Girl Who Struck Out Babe Ruth". Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  7. ^ "National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: Hall of Famer detail: Arthur Charles Vance". Retrieved 2009-09-26. [dead link]
  8. ^ a b Hellman, Neal (April 6, 2008). "Jackie Mitchell". Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  9. ^ Cronin, Brian (2011-02-23). "Sports Legend Revealed: Did a female pitcher strike out Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-04-02. 
  10. ^ a b c Aubrecht, Michael (2003). "Jackie Mitchell – The Pride of the Yankees". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  11. ^ "Mary's City of David: The Famous Israelite Baseball Team". Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  12. ^ a b Broome, Andy (2009). "Jackie Mitchell Q & A ©2009 Andy Broome". Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  13. ^ Holmes, Dan (February 15, 2007). "When Jackie Mitchell Struck OUT Ruth, Gehrig". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  14. ^ "Find A Grave Memorial for Jackie Mitchell". Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  15. ^ "Virne Mitchell Gilbert, woman who struck out Babe Ruth Series: obituaries". St. Petersburg Times. January 11, 1987. p. 15 B. Retrieved 2009-09-26. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Sharbono, Kaye (1995). Jackie Mitchell, Baseball Player. Modern Curriculum Press. ISBN 0-8136-5731-8. 
  • Hanson, David (2004). The Spring Habit. Raymore, Missouri, USA: Ad Lib Books. ISBN 0-9752976-0-0. 
  • Bathroom Reader's Institute (Berkeley, CA) (1989). Uncle John's Second Bathroom Reader. New York, New York, USA: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-03446-6. 
  • Danziger, Lucy; Burton Nelson, Mariah (1998). Smith, Lissa, ed. Nike is a Goddess: The History of Women in Sports. New York, New York, USA: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-761-5. 
  • Kovach, John M. (2005). Women's Baseball. Charleston, South Carolina, USA: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-3380-7. 
  • Moss, Marissa; C. F. Payne (illustrator) (February 2004). Mighty Jackie: The Strike-Out Queen. New York, New York, USA: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing. ISBN 978-0-689-86329-5. 
  • Patrick, Jean L.S.; Jeni Reeves (illustrator) (2000). The Girl Who Struck Out Babe Ruth. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: Lerner. ISBN 978-1-57505-397-4. 

External Links[edit]