|Tribal Area||Khyber Agency|
|Elevation||1,512 ft (461 m)|
Jamrud (Pashto: جمرود, Urdu: جمرود), is a town located in the Khyber Agency, within Khyber Pakhtunkwha, Pakistan. The town is the doorway to the Khyber pass, part of the Hindu Kush range. The town has road and rail linkages with Peshawar city of Pakistan, and a pass connects it with Landi Kotal, located near the borders of Afghanistan.
Jamrud, lying in proximity to the Khyber pass, has remained a location on the trade route between central Asia and the South Asia and a strategic military location. Jamrud is located at an altitude of 1512 ft (461 meters) above sea level and is 10.2 miles (17 km) west from the city of Peshawar. Jamrud Fort is located at 33.969N,71.338E.
The Battle of Jamrud between the Sikh Empire and Durrani Empire took place at Jamrud. Jamrud was a strategic location and served as a base for a cantonment of the British Indian Army during the period of the British Raj. During the military operations of 1878-79 Jamrud became a place of considerable importance as the frontier outpost on British territory towards Afghanistan, and it was also the base of operations for a portion of the Tirah campaign in 1897-1898. It was also the headquarters of the Khyber Rifles, and the collecting station for the Khyber tolls. The population in 1901 was 1,848.The place continues to be of strategic significance.
About 18 km east of Peshawar, Jamrud Fort was built by the Sikhs in 1823 to mark their Western edge of their empire. It meant 'Lonely Planet'. The start of the hostilities and rise in the importance of Jamrud stemmed of the incidents that happened a few years earlier. In 1834, Peshawar, that was considered winter capital of Afghanistan, passed on to the hands of Sikhs who annexed it from the Afghans. This didn't go well with then Amir and effective ruler of Afghanistan, Dost Mohammad Khan. He called for the Jihad to free Peshawar from the Sikh's control. Further, in 1836-37 Sikh General Hari Singh Nalwa started renovating the fort in preparation of further advances by Sikhs. In 1837 when the Sikh army was concentrated at Lahore to celebrate the marriage of Kawar Nau Nihal Singh, the grandson of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Afghans sensing the opportunity and led by Akbar Khan laid the siege to Jamrud, trapping about one thousand Sikh troops with Afghans army of twenty to twenty five thousands troops. Such was the state of the of troops on 23 April 1837. But Sikh army fought bravely, forced the Afghans to lift the siege and followed the Afghans till Kyber Pass, but eventually had to fall back to Peshawar leaving the fort in hands of Afghans. Sikh lost their brave commander Hari Singh Nalwa in the hand to hand fight. Sarkar Kalsa wazir Jawahar Singh nominated Sardar General Gurmukh Singh Lamba as political cum military adviser to protect the sikh kingdom. Fort Sardar received of highest military award IZAZI-I-SARDARI and Nirmal Bud and Ujjal Didar, civilians, received Jagir areas in Nowshera, Pindi Lala,Dobuji, Chak Bisava, Kot Sater, Qila Sardar Atar Singh( sardar sons name ) and Rukh Gurmukh Singh (Bara Dari).
References- Title and Merit of Order [Sikh Empire 1799-1839] Sikh Cyclopaedia Qila -Serial-9-Jamrud Fort The Return of the King - William Dalrymple Posted by Col(Retd)Harjeet Singh Lamba ,Psc,Msc(Militay Sciences)
- Jamrūd - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 52. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V14_058.gif
- North-West Frontier Province - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 19, p. 153. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V19_159.gif
- Gazetteer of the Peshawar District 1897-8, revised edition, Lahore: Punjab Government, p. 74.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- The Return of the King by William Dalrymple http://www.amazon.com/Return-King-Battle-Afghanistan-1839-42/dp/0307958280