Jan Masaryk

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Jan Masaryk
Jan Masaryk.jpg
Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia
In office
1940 – 19481
President Edvard Beneš
Prime Minister Jan Šrámek
Zdeněk Fierlinger
Klement Gottwald
Preceded by German occupation
Succeeded by Vladimír Clementis
Czechoslovakia Ambassador to the United Kingdom
In office
1925–1938
President Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Edvard Beneš
Personal details
Born Jan Garrigue Masaryk
14 September 1886
Prague, Austria-Hungary
Died March 10, 1948(1948-03-10) (aged 61)
Prague, Czechoslovakia
Relations Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (father)
Religion Protestant
1In exile 1940-April 1945

Jan Garrigue Masaryk (14 September 1886 – 10 March 1948) was a Czech diplomat and politician and Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1940 to 1948. American journalist John Gunther described Masaryk as "a brave, honest, turbulent, and impulsive man".[1]

Early life[edit]

Born in Prague, he was a son of professor and politician Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (who became the first President of Czechoslovakia in 1918) and Charlotte Garrigue, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk's American wife. Masaryk was educated in Prague and also in the USA, where he also for a time lived as a drifter and lived on the earnings of his manual labor.[citation needed] He returned home in 1913 and served in the Austro-Hungarian army during the First World War.[citation needed] He then joined the diplomatic service and became chargé d'affaires to the USA in 1919, a post he held until 1922. In 1925 he was made ambassador to Britain.[2] His father resigned as President in 1935 and died two years later. He was succeeded by Edvard Beneš.

Wartime[edit]

In September 1938 the Sudetenland was occupied by German forces and Masaryk resigned as ambassador in protest, although he remained in London. Other government members including Beneš also resigned. In March 1939 Germany occupied the remaining parts of the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, and a puppet Slovak state was established in Slovakia. When a Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile was established in Britain in 1940, Masaryk was appointed Foreign Minister.[citation needed] During the war he regularly made broadcasts [3] over the BBC to occupied Czechoslovakia. He had a flat at Westminster Gardens, Marsham Street in London but often stayed at the Czechoslovak Chancellery residence at Wingrave or with President Beneš at Aston Abbotts, both near Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire.[citation needed] In 1942 Masaryk received an LL.D. from Bates College.[citation needed] In July 1942 Masaryk called for the "killing of Germans" as the shortest way to win the war. "I favour bombing of open towns—and killing of women and children if necessary."[4]

After the war[edit]

Masaryk remained Foreign Minister following the liberation of Czechoslovakia as part of the multi-party, communist-dominated National Front government.[5] The Communists under Klement Gottwald saw their position strengthened after the 1946 elections but Masaryk stayed on as Foreign Minister.[5][6] He was concerned with retaining the friendship of the Soviet Union, but was dismayed by the veto they put on Czechoslovak participation in the Marshall Plan.[5][6] In February 1948 the majority of the non-communist cabinet members resigned, hoping to force new elections, but instead a communist government under Gottwald was formed in what became known as the Czech coup (Victorious February in the Eastern Bloc).[5][6] Masaryk remained Foreign Minister, and was the only prominent minister in the new government who was neither a Communist nor a fellow traveller.[6] However, he was apparently uncertain about his decision[citation needed] and possibly regretted his decision not to oppose the communist coup by broadcasting to the Czech people on national radio, where he was a much loved celebrity.

Death[edit]

Memorial plaque with Masaryk´s quote "Pravda vítězí, ale dá to fušku" (The truth prevails, but it's a chore). It is a reference to Czechoslovak national motto Veritas vincit (Truth prevails).
Jan Masaryk with Laurence Steinhardt, the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia.

On March 10, 1948 Masaryk was found dead, dressed only in his pajamas, in the courtyard of the Foreign Ministry (the Černín Palace in Prague) below his bathroom window.[7] The initial investigation by the Ministry of the Interior stated that he had committed suicide by jumping out of the window, although for a long time it has been believed by some that he was murdered by the nascent Communist government.[5][7][8] (Others in the country put it thus: "Jan Masaryk was a very tidy man. He was such a tidy man that when he jumped he shut the window after himself.") In a second investigation taken in 1968 during the Prague Spring, Masaryk's death was ruled an accident, not excluding a murder[9] and a third investigation in the early 1990s after the Velvet Revolution concluded that it had been a murder.

Discussions about the mysterious circumstances of his death continued for some time.[7] Those who believe that Masaryk was murdered called it the Third Defenestration of Prague, and point to the presence of nail marks on the window sill from which Masaryk fell, as well as smearings of feces and Masaryk's stated intention to leave Prague the next day for London. Members of Masaryk's family—including his former wife, Frances Crane Leatherbee, a former in-law named Sylvia E. Crane, and his sister Alice Masaryková — stated their belief that he had indeed killed himself, according to a letter written by Sylvia E. Crane to The New York Times, and considered the possibility of murder a "cold war cliché".[10][11] A Prague police report in 2004 concluded after forensic research that Masaryk had indeed been thrown out the window to his death.[12] This report was seemingly corroborated in 2006 when a Russian journalist claimed that his mother knew the Russian intelligence officer who threw Masaryk out the window.[13]

The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa, described his conversation with Nicolae Ceauşescu, who told him about "ten international leaders the Kremlin killed or tried to kill". Jan Masaryk was one of them.[14]

Private life[edit]

From 1924 until their divorce in 1931, Masaryk was married to Frances Crane Leatherbee (1887-1954). She was an heiress to the Crane piping, valves and elevator fortune, the former wife of Robert Leatherbee, a daughter of Charles R. Crane, a U.S. minister to China, and a sister of Richard Teller Crane II, a U.S. ambassador to Czechoslovakia. By that marriage, Masaryk had three stepchildren: Charles Leatherbee, Robert Leatherbee Jr., and Richard Crane Leatherbee.[15] Stepson Charles Leatherbee (Harvard 1929) co-founded the University Players, a summer stock company in Falmouth, Massachusetts, in 1928 with Bretaigne Windust. He married Mary Lee Logan, younger sister of Joshua Logan, who became one of the co-directors of the University Players in 1931.[16]

Masaryk was a skilled amateur pianist. In that capacity, he accompanied Jarmila Novotná in a recital of Czech folk songs issued on 78 RPM records to commemorate the victims of the Nazi eradication of Lidice.[17]

At the time of his death, Masaryk was reportedly planning to marry the American writer Marcia Davenport.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gunther, John (1961). Inside Europe Today. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 335. LCCN 61-9706 Check |lccn= value (help). 
  2. ^ Carey, Nick (12-04-2000). "Czechs in History: Jan Masaryk". Radio Prague. Retrieved 28 October 2012. 
  3. ^ Masaryk, Jan (2011). Speaking to My Country. Lexington MA: Plunkett Lake Press.  Foreword by Madeleine Albright.
  4. ^ Lowell Sun July 18, 1942, p.12
  5. ^ a b c d e Cook, Bernard A. (2001) Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1, p. 251 New York: Taylor & Francis
  6. ^ a b c d Owen, John M. (2010) The Clash of Ideas in World Politics, p. 185 Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
  7. ^ a b c Axelrod, Alan (2009) The Real History of the Cold War: A New Look at the Past, p. 133 New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.
  8. ^ Horáková, Pavla (11-03-2002). "Jan Masaryk died 54 years ago". Radio Prague. Retrieved 4 April 2009. 
  9. ^ "Books: Murder Will Out". Time. January 12, 1970. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  10. ^ Crane, John O. & Sylvia E. (1991) Czechoslovakia: Anvil of the Cold War, pp. xiv, 321-323 New York: Praeger
  11. ^ "East Europe Could Shed Light on Trotsky and Some Americans; Masaryk a Suicide". The New York Times. January 28, 1990. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  12. ^ Cameron, Rob, "Police close case on 1948 death of Jan Masaryk - murder, not suicide", Radio Prague, 06-01-2004.
  13. ^ Cameron, Rob, "Masaryk murder mystery back in headlines as Russian journalist speaks out", Radio Prague, 18-12-2006.
  14. ^ Pacepa, Ion Mihai, "The Kremlin’s Killing Ways", National Review Online, November 28, 2006.
  15. ^ Leatherbee, Richard, "My Family Tree, 1772 - present", genealogyboard.com, December 13, 2005.
  16. ^ See, Houghton, Norris. But Not Forgotten: The Adventure of the University Players. New York, William Sloane Associates: 1951.
  17. ^ Crutchfield, Will, "CLASSICAL MUSIC; Once, the Voice Was Melody Itself. In Fact, It Still Is", The New York Times, March 7, 1993, accessed October 30, 2008.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
German occupational ministry
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia
1945–1948
Succeeded by
Vladimír Clementis