Jiufotang Formation

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Jiufotang Formation
Stratigraphic range: Aptian
Type Geological formation
Unit of Jehol Group
Sub-units Shangheshou Bed, Meileyingzi Bed
Underlies Fuxin Formation
Overlies Yixian Formation
Location
Region Liaoning
Country  China

The Jiufotang Formation is an Early Cretaceous geological formation in Chaoyang, Liaoning which has yielded fossils of feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, pterosaurs, and other organisms. (see Jehol Biota). It is a member of the Jehol group. The exact age of the Jiufotang has been debated for years, with estimates ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. He et al. (2004) used argon - isotope radiometry to confirm biostratigraphic age estimates. They confirmed an Early Cretaceous, Aptian age for the Jiufotang Formation, 120.3 +/-0.7 million years ago. Fossils of Microraptor and Jeholornis are from the Jiufotang.[1]

Fauna[edit]

Choristoderans[edit]

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes

Philydrosaurus

Philydrosaurus proseilus

Monjurosuchid

Ikechosaurus

Ikechosaurus pijiagouensis

Simoedosaurid

Liaoxisaurus

Liaoxisaurus chaoyangensis

Simoedosaurid

Fish[edit]

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes Images

Jinanichthys

Jinanichthys longicephalus

An osteoglossiform.

Lycoptera

Lycoptera davidi

An osteoglossiform.

Peipiaosteus

Peipiaosteus pani

A fish related to Sturgeons.

Protosephurus

Protosephurus liui

A Paddlefish.

Sinamia

Sinamia zdanskyi

A Bowfin.

Mammals[edit]

Several mammal specimens have been found from the Jiufotang, but only one has been formally described and named.

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes

Liaoconodon

Liaoconodon hui[2]

Nearly complete skeleton

A eutriconodont

Unnamed mammal

Unnamed

Partial remains including a foot and fragments of the skull

A mammal similar to Eomaia and Sinodelphys from the Yixian Formation. Found as stomach contents of Microraptor zhaoianus.

Ornithischians[edit]

Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Psittacosaurus

Psittacosaurus meileyingensis

Meileyingzi Bed

"[Four] individuals, [two] complete skulls."[3]

A ceratopsian.

Psittacosaurus mongoliensis

Shangheshou and Meileyingzi Beds

Pterosaurs[edit]

Genus Species County Member Abundance Notes Images

Chaoyangopterus

Chaoyangopterus zhangi

A chaoyangopterid.[4]

Eoazhdarcho

Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis

A chaoyangopterid.[4]

Guidraco

Guidraco venator

An ornithocheiroid.[5]

Huaxiapterus

Huaxiapterus benxiensis

A tapejarid.[4]

Huaxiapterus corollatus

Huaxiapterus jii

Jidapterus

Jidapterus edentus

A chaoyangopterid.[4]

Liaoningopterus

Liaoningopterus gui

An ornithocheirid.[4]

Liaoxipterus

Liaoxipterus brachyognathus

An istiodactylid.[4]

Nemicolopterus

Nemicolopterus crypticus

A dsungaripteroid.

Nurhachius

Nurhachius ignaciobritoi

An istiodactylid.[4]

Shenzhoupterus

Shenzhoupterus chaoyangensis

A chaoyangopterid.

Sinopterus

Sinopterus dongi

A tapejarid.[4]

Sinopterus gui

Saurischians[edit]

An unnamed species of titanosaur is also present in the formation.[6]

Enantiornithines[edit]

Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Alethoalaornis

Alethoalaornis agitornis[7]

An enantiornithine

Boluochia

Boluochia zhengi

"Partial skull [and] partial postcranium."[8]

A longipterygid

Cathayornis

Cathayornis aberransis

An entantiornithine

Cathayornis caudatus

Nomen dubium[9]

Cathayornis yandica

"Partial skeleton."[8]

An enantiornithine

Cuspirostrisornis

Cuspirostrisornis houi

A possible avisaurid

Dapingfangornis

Dapingfangornis sentisorhinus

An enantiornithine

Eocathayornis

Eocathayornis walkeri

"Partial skeleton."[8]

An enantirontihine

Gracilornis

Gracilornis jiufotangensis

An enantirontihine

Huoshanornis

Huoshanornis huji

An enantirontihine

Largirostrornis

Largirostrornis sexdentoris

An enantirontihine

Longchengornis

Longchengornis sanyanensis

An enantirontihine

Longipteryx

Longipteryx chaoyangensis

A longipterygid

Rapaxavis

Rapaxavis pani

A longipterygid

Sinornis

Sinornis santensis

"Partial skull [and] many nearly complete postcranial skeletons."[10]

An enantiornithine

Xiangornis

Xiangornis shenmi

An enantiornithine

Euornithines[edit]

Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Aberratiodontus

Aberratiodontus wui

Junior synonym of Yanornis martini[11]

Chaoyangia

Chaoyangia beishanensis

"Partial skeleton."[10]

An ornithuran

Jianchangornis

Jianchangornis microdonta

Jianchang

An ornithuran

Parahongshanornis[12]

Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis

A Hongshanornithid

Schizooura

Schizooura lii

Jianchang

An ornithuran with long, forked tail feathers

Songlingornis

Songlingornis linghensis

An ornithuran.

Yanornis

Yanornis martini

An ornithuran.

Yixianornis

Yixianornis grabaui

An ornithuran.

Misc theropods[edit]

Genus Species County Member Material Notes Images

Confuciusornis

Confuciusornis sanctus

A primitive short-tailed bird (pygostylian). Also present in the Yixian Formation

Confuciusornis jianchangensis

Liaoning

Cryptovolans

Cryptovolans pauli

Junior synonym of Microraptor gui[13]

Dalianraptor

Dalianraptor cuhe

A basal avialan

Didactylornis

Didactylornis jii

Junior synonym of Sapeornis chaoyangensis[14]

Jeholornis[1]

Jeholornis prima[1]

A basal avialan, also present in the Yixian Formation[14]

Jeholornis palmapenis[15]

A basal avialan

Microraptor

Microraptor gui

Shangheshou Bed

Extremely common[6]

Could be synonym of Microraptor zhaoianus

Microraptor zhaoianus

Shangheshou Bed[6]

"At least [three] partial semiarticulated postcrania and several skulls."[16] Feathered integument is also preserved.[16]

A dromaeosaurid.

Omnivoropteryx

Omnivoropteryx sinousaorum

An omnivoropterygiform

Sapeornis

Sapeornis angustis

"Nearly complete skeleton without skull."[17]

An omnivoropterygiform, a primitive short-tailed bird

Sapeornis chaoyangensis

Shenshiornis

Shenshiornis primita[18]

An omnivoropterygiform

Similicaudipteryx

Similicaudipteryx yixianensis

An oviraptorosaur

Sinotyrannus[19]

Sinotyrannus kazuoensis[19]

A tyrannosauroid[19]

Shenzhouraptor

Shenzhouraptor orientalis

Junior synonym of Jeholornis prima[14]

Zhongjianornis

Zhongjianornis yangi

A primitive short-tailed bird[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c He, H.Y., Wang, X.L., Zhou, Z.H., Wang, F., Boven, A., Shi, G.H., Zhu R.X. (2004). "Timing of the Jiufotang Formation (Jehol Group) in Liaoning, northeastern China, and its implications". Geophysical Research Letters 31(13): 1709.
  2. ^ Meng, J., Wang, Y., and Li, C. (2011). "Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont". Nature, 472: 181-185. doi:10.1038/nature09921 PMID 21490668
  3. ^ "Table 22.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 479.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Wang, X. and Zhou, Z. (2006). "Pterosaur assemblages of the Jehol Biota and their implication for the Early Cretaceous pterosaur radiation ."Geological Journal, 41: 405-418.
  5. ^ Xiaolin Wang, Alexander W. A. Kellner, Shunxing Jiang and Xin Cheng (2012). "New toothed flying reptile from Asia: close similarities between early Cretaceous pterosaur faunas from China and Brazil". Naturwissenschaften 99. doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0889-1. PMID 22354475. 
  6. ^ a b c Xu, X. and Norell, M.A. (2006). "Non-Avian dinosaur fossils from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China."Geological Journal, 41: 419-437.
  7. ^ Li, L., Hu, D.-Y., Duan, Y., Gong, E.-P. and Hou, L.-H. (2007). "Alethoalaornithidae fam. nov., a new family of enantiornithine bird from the Lower Cretaceous of western Liaoning." Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 46(3): 365-372. (http://www.cqvip.com/qk/90074X/200703/25642898.html) [in Chinese]
  8. ^ a b c "Table 11.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 212.
  9. ^ O'Connor, J. and Dyke, G. (2010). "A reassessment of Sinornis santensis and Cathayornis yandica (Aves: Enantiornithes)." Records of the Australian Museum, 62: 7-20. doi:10.3853/J.0067-1975.62.2010.1540
  10. ^ a b "Table 11.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 214.
  11. ^ Cau, A. and Arduini, P. (2008). "Enantiophoenix electrophyla gen. et sp. nov. (Aves, Enantiornithes) from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Lebanon and its phylogenetic relationships." Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in Milano, 149: 293-324.
  12. ^ Li, Li; Jing-Qi Wang and Shi-Lin Hou (2011). "A new ornithurine bird (Hongshanornithidae) from the Jiufotang Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning, China". Vertebrata PalAsiatica 49 (2): 195–200. 
  13. ^ Senter, P., Barsold, R., Britt, B.B., and Burnham, D.A. (2004). "Systematics and evolution of Dromaeosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda)." Bulletin of the Gunma Museum of Natural History, 8: 1-20.
  14. ^ a b c Li, D., Sulliven, C., Zhou, Z. and Zhang, Z. (2010). "Basal birds from China: a brief review." Chinese Birds, 1(2): 83-96 doi:10.5122/cbirds.2010.0002
  15. ^ O'Connor, J.K., Sun C., Xu X., Wang X. and Zhou Z. (In press). "A new species of Jeholornis with complete caudal integument." Historical Biology, (advance online publication). doi:10.1080/08912963.2011.552720
  16. ^ a b "Table 10.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 198.
  17. ^ "Table 11.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 216.
  18. ^ Hu, D., Li, L., Hou, L., and Xu, X. (2010). "A new sapeornithid bird from China and its implication for early avian evolution." Acta Geologica Sinica, (English Edition) 84(3): 472-482. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2010.00188.x
  19. ^ a b c Ji, Q., Ji, S.-A., and Zhang, L.-J. 2009. First large tyrannosauroid theropod from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota in northeastern China. Geological Bulletin of China 28(10):1369-1374.
  20. ^ Zhou, Z., Zhang, F. and Li, Z. (2010). "A new Lower Cretaceous bird from China and tooth reduction in early avian evolution." Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277(1679): 219-227.doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0885

Wang Y, Evans SE. 2011. A gravid lizard from the Cretaceous of China and the early history of squamate viviparity. Naturwissenschaften doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0820-1