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|• Chinese||辽宁省 (Liáoníng Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||辽 (pinyin: Liáo)|
Map showing the location of Liaoning Province
|Named for||The Liao River|
(and largest city)
|Divisions||14 prefectures, 100 counties, 1511 townships|
|• Secretary||Wang Min|
|• Governor||Li Xi|
|• Total||145,900 km2 (56,300 sq mi)|
|• Density||300/km2 (780/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||15th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han – 84%
Manchu – 13%
Mongol – 2%
Hui - 0.6%
Korean – 0.6%
Xibe – 0.3%
|• Languages and dialects||Northeastern Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Pyongan Korean, Manchu|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-21|
|GDP (2014)||CNY 2.862 trillion
US$ 466 billion (7th)
|- per capita||CNY 65,210
US$ 10,615 (7th)
|HDI (2010)||0.740 (high) (6th)|
|Literal meaning||Pacified Liao Province
Peaceful Province of the Liao
|Manchu script||ᠯᡳᠶᠣᠣ ᠨᡳᠩ|
|Manchu script||ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠩᡤᠠ|
Liaoning is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and the name was changed to Liaoning in 1929. It was also known as Mukden province at the time, for the Manchu pronunciation of Shengjing, the former name of the provincial capital Shenyang. Under the Japanese puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945 and again in 1954.
Liaoning is the southernmost part of Manchuria, the Chinese Northeast. It is also known in Chinese as "the Golden Triangle" from its shape and strategic location, with the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay and Bohai Sea) in the south, North Korea's North Pyongan and Chagang provinces in the southeast, Jilin to the northeast, Hebei to the southwest, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The Yalu River marks its border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong in Liaoning and Sinuiju in North Korea.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Politics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Administrative divisions
- 6 Paleontology
- 7 Economy
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Religion
- 10 Tourism
- 11 Education
- 12 Sports
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The characters forming the province's modern Chinese name are
The province's one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 辽.
Liaoning is located in the southern part of Northeast China. The governments headed by various people such as the Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon, Goguryeo, Balhae, the Chinese as the Yan state, Han Dynasty, and the non-Han peoples such as Xiongnu, Donghu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan ruled Liaoning.
The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the northwestern frontier of the province from a potential threat from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries). In 1467–1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.
Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Ming Liaodong was conquered by the Manchus in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616–1621 in Xingjing (兴京), which was located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province (near today's Xilaocheng Village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (新宾满族自治县), part of Fushun City). It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning), and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era.
The Qing conquest of Liaodong resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (Fuyin) of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang, and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining.
In the last half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653), the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning). Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin and Heilongjiang, as well as the adjacent parts of Inner Mongolia), the so-called Willow Palisade was constructed (ca. 1638 – ca. 1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest.
Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence – or, failing that, to legalize them. E.g. an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them to either properly register and to join a local defense group (保; bao), or to leave the province for their original places within the next 10 years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants... In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734.
During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing, ruled much of modern Liaoning. In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region.
In the 20th century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought. During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang. The province first received its present name on January 29, 1929; the Zhongdong Railway Incident took place later that year. In 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.
At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.
Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years, this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.
The politics of Liaoning is structured in a single party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning (辽宁省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's single party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Communist Party of China Liaoning Provincial Committee Secretary (辽宁省委书记 for short), colloquially termed the "Liaoning Party Chief".
Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian, and was governed by a zongdu or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces, Chinese: 东三省总督), along with the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor (xunfu).
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|This section requires expansion. (July 2014)|
It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east.
The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qianshan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.
|— Sub-provincial city —|
|— Prefecture-level city —|
These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (17 county-level cities, 19 counties, eight autonomous counties, and 56 districts), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistricts).
Liaoning contains some of the foremost paleontological sites in the world. Known collectively as the Jehol Group they include the Yixian Formation, Jiufotang Formation and Tiaojishan Formation. The name Jehol derives from a now defunct provincial division of that name, which covered an area that is now Western Liaoning, Eastern Hebei and a small part of Inner Mongolia. Fossils were first found there during the 1920s. During the Japanese occupation of the area through the 1930s and early 1940s, more fossils were found but records of them were lost after World War II ended. The area remained relatively unexplored until the 1990s. It was in 1996 that Liaoning made the headlines with the announcement of the discovery of Sinosauropteryx prima, the first example of a filamented "feathered" dinosaur. Sinosauropteryx prima was a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation. This discovery pushed the evolution of feathers back in time and showed that dinosaurs, not only birds, had feathers. It also showed a direct evolutionary link between theropod dinosaurs and modern birds.
Since then, dozens of ground-breaking finds have been discovered throughout the Jehol group. These including the earliest flower, earliest placental mammal, known as Eomaia, the earliest known marsupial, an intact embryo of a pterosaur, Repenomamus robustus—a cat-sized mammal that ate dinosaurs, Sinornithosaurus millenii as well as many birds and feathered dinosaurs. Discoveries such as Dilong paradoxus, another feathered theropod, date to the early Cretaceous Period. This is some 60 million years before Tiranosaurus, and thus these discoveries push the evolution of feathers earlier than previously thought.
The Liaoning fossils are noted for their high level of preservation which often includes soft body tissues which is rare. Aside from the famous birds and feathered dinosaurs, the Liaoning fossils include insects, fish, aquatic arthropods, and plants. The Liaoning deposit is widely considered to be the one of the worlds premier fossil sites. The reason for the high level of preservation is believed to be due to how the animals died. The area was volcanicly active and large plumes of volcanic dust repeatedly covered the area, instantly killing and burying any living thing in the area. The extremely fine grain of the sediment and the chemical composition of the ash prevented the usual bacterial decay. In some specimens, extremely fine details can be seen such as the proboscis of the bee Florinemestruis used to drink nectar form the earliest flowers. In other specimens, colours are still visible including strips on fish and spots on turtles.
Liaoning has the largest economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 2.20 trillion yuan (ca. US$348 billion) making it the 7th largest in China (out of 31 provinces). Its per capita GDP was 41,782 yuan (US$6,172). Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP.
In 2008, Liaoning was the region with the highest GDP growth among global G8x8, the eight provinces or states below national level with the highest GDP of the top eight GDP nations. According to preliminary statistics, Liaoning maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth.
Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery. On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance.
Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province’s light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery.
In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics.
Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong.
Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.
Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil, especially in the Liaohe Oilfield.
Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on.
The sea off Dalian abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.
Economic and technological development zones
Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level. These zones are further grouped into Economic Development Zones, High-Tech Zones, Free Trade and Export Processing Zones, and Special Development Zones.
- Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone
In October 1995, Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone was approved to be established by State Council. Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone is the only zone established in Hi-Tech Industrial Zone. It has a total area of 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi). It welcomes all the investors from the world, especially Taiwan to invest in the zone. Investors can enjoy many preferential policies. It focuses on the development of instruments manufacturing, telecommunication, bio-pharmacy, electronics, new materials. It is an important part of Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.
- Liaoning Shenyang Export Processing Zone
Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone was approved to be established by the state government in June 2005. It is located in National-level Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, with a planned area of 62 km2 (24 sq mi) and current area of 14.1 km2 (5.4 sq mi). It encourages and focuses on the development of auto and auto parts, electronics, precision machinery, new energy, new materials and fine chemical industry.
Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone used to be called Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Established in 1988, it is a national hi-tech development zone approved by State Council. The zone is located in the west of Shenyang City with an area of 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi). Its encouraged industries include electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, energy saving and environmental protection.
- Anshan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone
Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in September 1984, as one of the first of the China National Economic and Technological Development Zones. The zone had a GDP of 70.31 billion yuan in 2007 and the total volume of import and export trade is 14.92 billion dollars, which accounts for a quarter of the whole Liaoning Province's. Most of the enterprises in Dalian ETDZ are factories foreign enterprises, especially from Japan, South Korea and USA, such as Canon, Pfizer, Toshiba and Intel.
- Dalian Export Processing Zone
Dalian Export Processing Zone was approved to be set up by State Council in April 2000, with a planned area of 2.95 km2 (1.14 sq mi). It is divided into two parts, A zone and B zone. A zone has a construction area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), and started operation in May 2001. All the basic infrastructure are available, which include road, water, gas, and power supply, telecommunication and so on. In A zone, it encourages several leading industries, such as home appliances, light industry, machinery, construction materials, medicine instruments.
- Dalian Free Trade Zone
Dalian Free Trade Zone was approved to be set up by government in May, 1992. Investors can enjoys preferential policies, including duty-free. Inside the zone, all the infrastructures are available. The trade zone enjoys strategic location and convenient traffic. It has formed some leading industries, such as electronics, machinery and plastics.
- Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 35.6 square kilometres (13.7 sq mi). Inside the zone, all the infrastructure are available. It focuses and encourages the following industries: electronic information, bio-pharmacy, and new materials.
- Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone
Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved to be national-level development zone in 1992. It is located in the bank of Yalu River, and opposite the Sinuiju, a Korean city. It has completed the infrastructure. It has formed and encourages the following industries which is electronic information, machinery manufacturing, bio-pharmaceuticals.
- Yingkou Economic & Technical Development Zone
Regional development strategies
Central Liaoning City Cluster (Shenyang Metro Area)
The Central Liaoning city cluster is a Megalopolis centering at Shenyang (urban population 4 million). Within its 150 km (93 mi) radius, it has Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun (1.3 million), Yingkou (1.1 million), Benxi (0.95 million), Liaoyang (0.7 million), and Tieling (0.4 million).
In April 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved a national development strategy for the Shenyang Metro Area. The core of this strategy is innovation in industrial development, integration of the eight cities, integration of urban and rural areas as well as interventions towards more market-oriented development.
Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt
The Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as the "rustbelt" of Chinese State Owned Enterprises.
The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.
The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi).
The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new motorway along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. The new coastal motorway will directly connect the entire rim of five zones around the Bohai sea, and will be completed by 2009.
|Ethnic groups in Liaoning, 2000 census|
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
According to a 2012 survey only around 10% of the population of Liaoning belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 5.5%, followed by Protestants with 2.1%, Muslims with 0.8% and Catholics with 0.1%. Around 90% of the population is non religious or partakes to traditional folk religions, Taoist rites, worship of gods and ancestors.
The Mukden Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as well known as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO World Heritage Site as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing.
In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The port city of Dalian (a former Russian and Japanese port city), located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China.
Bijia Mountain is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.
Colleges and universities
Under the national Ministry of Education:
Under various other national agencies:
Under the provincial government:
- China Medical University
- Shenyang Normal University
- Shenyang Medical College
- Liaoning Medical University
- Liaoning Normal University
- Liaoning Technical University
- Liaoning University
- Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology
- Shenyang Agricultural University
- Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering
- Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology
- Shenyang Jianzhu University
- Shenyang Ligong University
- Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
- Shenyang University
- Shenyang University of Technology
- Anshan Normal University
- Bohai University
- Dalian Jiaotong University
- Dalian Medical University
- Dalian University
- Dalian University of Foreign Languages
- Dongbei University of Finance and Economics
- Liaoning Institute of Technology
- Liaoning Radio and TV University (辽宁广播电视大学)
- Shenyang Polytechnic College (沈阳职业技术学院)
Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:
- Chinese Football Association Super League
- Chinese Football Association Jia League
- Chinese Basketball Association
- Major national historical and cultural sites (Liaoning)
- Shenyang Mandarin
- 12th National Games of the People's Republic of China
- Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning
- Gojoseon–Yan War
- "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census  (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
- "Liaoning Travel Guide: Map, History, Sightseeing, Ethnic Minority, Climate". Retrieved 2010-03-14.
- 《漢典》 [Hàn Diǎn, Zdic.net]. 「遼」. HiChina Zhicheng Technology Ltd., 2013. Accessed 20 Jan 2014. (Chinese) & (English)
- Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites 2nd ed., p. 218. McFarland & Co. (Jefferson), 2006. Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
- See, inter alia, Mandarin–English Talking Dictionary. 「宁」. YellowBridge, 2013. Accessed 20 Jan 2014. (Chinese) & (English)
- Sakatani, Yoshiro & al. Manchuria, a Survey of its Economic Development, p. 301. Garland Pub., 1932.
- 蒋波 [Jiang Bo], ed. 〈中国各省及自治区名称历史由来和变化〉 ["Origins of and changes to the names of China's provinces and autonomous regions"] on 《千龙新闻网》 [Qiānlóng Xīnwén Wǎng, Qinlong News Online], reprinted in the 《人民网》 [Rénmín Wǎng, The People's Daily Online]. 7 Apr 2004. Accessed 20 Jan 2014. (Chinese)
- Boland-Crewe, Tara & al. The Territories of the People's Republic of China, p. 156. Europa Pub. Ltd. (London), 2002. Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
- History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003
- Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 38–40. ISBN 0-89065-118-3.
- Edmonds (1985), p. 113
- Edmonds (1985), p. 74
- Edmonds (1985), pp. 74–75
- Edmonds (1985), pp. 58–61
- Edmonds (1985), p. 76
- Wang Lianjie. "Zhongdong Railway Incident and Great Repercussions Caused by Letters from Chen Duxiu", p. 57, in Asian Culture and History, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan 2010). Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
- Chen, P-J., Dong, Z-M., Zhen, S-N. 1998. An exceptionally well-preserved theropod dinosaur from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature. Vol. 391:14.–152.
- Vaughan, Terry A; Ryan, James M.; Cheshire, Leonard; Czaplewski, Nicholas J. (2011). Mammalogy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 114–116. ISBN 1449644376.
- Manning, Phillip Lars (2008). Grave Secrets of Dinosaurs: Soft Tissues and Hard Science. National Geographic Books. ISBN 1426202199. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Selden, Paul; Nudds, John (2012). Evolution of Fossil Ecosystems. Elsevier. pp. 168–182. ISBN 0124046371.
- Brusatte, Stephen L. (2012). Dinosaur Paleobiology, Volume 1 of TOPA Topics in Paleobiology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 75–77. ISBN 1118273559. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Norell, Mark; Gaffney, Eugene S.; Dingus, Lowell (2000). Discovering Dinosaurs: Evolution, Extinction, and the Lessons of Prehistory. University of California Press. pp. 214–216. ISBN 0520225015.
- China Liaoning Business Guide
- RightSite.asia | Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone
- RightSite.asia | Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone
- RightSite.asia | Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Export Processing Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Free Trade Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- RightSite.asia | Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone
- China Liaoning Business Guide
- 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS（2012）调查数据. p. 013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liaoning.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Liaoning.|
- (Chinese) Official website of the Liaoning Provincial Government
- Liaoning Information Guide
- (English) (Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
- Economic profile for Liaoning at HKTDC
|Hebei||North Pyongan, North Korea|
|Bohai Sea||Korea Bay|