Johann Weikhard von Valvasor
|Johann Weichard von Valvasor
Janez Vajkard Valvasor
Valvasor in 1689
Laibach, Carniola, (now Ljubljana, Slovenia)
|Died||September or October 1693 (aged 52)
|Known for||nobleman, scholar, polymath|
|Spouse||Anna Rosina Valvasor née Grafenweger|
Johann Weikhard[Note 1] Freiherr von Valvasor (Slovene: Janez Vajkard Valvasor) or simply Valvasor (baptized on 28 May 1641 – September or October 1693) was a natural historian from Carniola, present-day Slovenia, and a fellow of the Royal Society in London.
He is known as a pioneer of study of karst phenomena. His best known work, the 1689 Glory of the Duchy of Carniola, published in 15 tomes, was together with his other writings until the late 19th century the main sources for older Slovenian history, making him one of the precursors of modern Slovenian historiography.
Valvasor was born in the town of Ljubljana, then Duchy of Carniola, now the capital of Slovenia. In the 16th century, It was Johann Baptist Valvasor who established the family Valvasor in the Duchy of Carniola in central Europe in a part of Austria that is now the Republic of Slovenia. In medieval Latin "Valvasor" or "Valvasore" held the meaning "the carrier of the feud". In western Europe its use can be traced back to the 11th century.
Neither the exact day nor the actual place of Valvasor's birth are known, but his baptism was registered at Saint Nicholas Church in Ljubljana. He was the twelfth child born to Bartholomäus and Anna Maria Freiin von Rauber, who did not only live at their Medija Castle in Izlake but also had a town residence in Ljubljana at the Old Square. His godparents were Freiherr (Baron) Konrad Ruess von Ruessenstein from the Strmol Castle and Regina Dorothea Rasp from the Krumperk Castle.
Valvasor's father died when the boy was ten years old. At the time he was already attending the Jesuit school in Ljubljana. Graduating in 1658 at the age of seventeen, he did not choose to continue his studies at a university but decided to broaden his horizons by meeting learned men on a journey across Europe. This journey lasted fourteen years and it even took him to northern Africa. During this period, he joined the army in the Austrian-Turkish War, where he became closely acquainted with the conditions on the Croatian Military Frontier.
Shortly after marrying Anna Rosina Grafenweger in 1672, Valvasor acquired the Bogenšperk Castle near Litija, where he arranged a writing, drawing and printing workshop. Valvasor spent a fortune on the publishing of his books; towards the end of his life, his debts forced him to sell Bogenšperk Castle, his vast library and his collection of prints. In 1690, Aleksandar Ignacije Mikulić, the Bishop of Zagreb, bought his library, along with some 7300 graphics, and moved it to Slavonia, where the collection became part of the library of the Zagreb Archbishopric, now part of the Croatian State Archives. Valvasor died in September 1693 in Krško.
Valvasor's most important work remains The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola (original title: Die Ehre deß Herzogthums Crain, Slovene: Slava vojvodine Kranjske), published in 1689 in 15 tomes, totaling 3532 pages and including 528 illustrations and 24 appendices, which provides a vivid description of Carniola at the time. He also recorded the first written document on vampires when he wrote on the legend of a vampire in Istria named Jure Grando.
Valvasor was a pioneer of study of karst phenomena. Upon the proposal of Edmond Halley, who was not only an astronomer but also a geophysicist, and in 1687 his extensive treatise on the hydrology of the intermittent Lake Cerknica won him a Fellowship of the Royal Society.
- Dominicae passionis icones, 1679, reprint 1970 COBISS 261635
- Topographia Ducatus Carnioliae modernae das ist Controfee aller Stätt, Märckht, Clöster und Schlösser, wie sie anietzo stehen in dem Herzogthumb Crain, 1679, reprint 1970 COBISS 19019831
- Topographia arcium Lambergianarum id est arces, castella et dominia in Carniolia habita possident comites a Lamberg; Bagenspergi (Bogenšperg), 1679 COBISS 75121664, reprint 1995 COBISS 50098688
- Topographia Archiducatus Carinthiae modernae: das ist Controfee aller Stätt, Märckht, Clöster, undt Schlösser, wie sie anietzo stehen in dem Ertzhertzogthumb Khärnten; Wagensperg in Crain (Bogenšperg), 1681 COBISS 87695872; Nürnberg, 1688 COBISS 87695872
- Carniolia, Karstia, Histria et Windorum Marchia, Labaci (Ljubljana) 1681 COBISS 217886464
- Theatrum mortis humanae tripartitum: figuris aeneis illustratum : das ist: Schau-Bühne des menschlichen Todts in drey Theil : mit schönen Kupffer-Stichen geziehrt vnd an Tag gegeben; Laybach, Saltzburg (Ljubljana, Salzburg); 1682 COBISS 53622528
- Topographia Archiducatus Carinthiae antiquae & modernae completa: Das ist Vollkommene und gründliche Land - Beschreibung des berühmten Erz - Herzogthums Kärndten; Nürnberg 1688, COBISS 87695872
- Opus insignium armorumque ... ;(1687–1688) COBISS 33650176
- Die Ehre deß Hertzogthums Crain: das ist, Wahre, gründliche, und recht eigendliche Belegen- und Beschaffenheit dieses Römisch-Keyserlichen herrlichen Erblandes; Laybach (Ljubljana) 1689 COBISS 29952257
- Although the spelling Weichard is used in Die Ehre... and Topographia..., the spelling Weikhard is more common in printed sources today. Both spellings are acceptable.
- Killy, Walther et al. (eds.). 2006. Dictionary of German Biography. Vol. 10: Thibaut–Zycha. Munich: K. G. Saur Verlag, p. 187.
- Fellows of the Royal Society: Valvasor; Johann Weikhard
- Reisp, Branko et al. (1987): Korespondenca Janeza Vajkarda Valvasorja z Royal Society. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 15.
- Croatian State Archives,[dead link] Division of the Zagreb Archbishopy, retrieved 2009-04-03 (Croatian)
- Johann Weichard von Valvasor: Die Ehre Deß Hertzogthums Crain, Das ist, Wahre, gründliche, und recht eigendliche Gelegen- und Beschaffenheit dieses, in manchen alten und neuen Geschicht-Büchern zwar rühmlich berührten, doch bishero nie annoch recht beschriebenen Römisch-Keyserlichen herrlichen Erblandes : Anjetzo, Vermittelst einer vollkommenen und ausführlichen Erzehlung aller seiner Landschafften, Felder ... alter und neuer Denckwürdigkeiten ... Jn Funffzehen, wiewol in vier Haupt-Theile unterschiedenen, Büchern, wie auch häuffigen Abrissen und zierlichen Kupffer-Figuren, ausgebreitet / von Johann Weichard Valvasor, Freyherrn. Aber Jn reines Teutsch gebracht von Erasmum Francisci. Laybach, Anno MDCLXXXIX.
- Boris Perić, Vampir, Biblioteka 21, Zagreb ( Naklada Ljevak) 2006. (Croat) ISBN 953-178-741-7
- Boris Perić, Vampir, translated into Slovene by Iztok Osojnik, Zbirka Beri globalno, Ljubljana (Tuma) 2007. ISBN 978-961-6682-05-3
- Reisp, Branko et al. 1987. Korespondenca Janeza Vajkarda Valvasorja z Royal Society. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 15.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Janez Vajkard Valvasor.|
- Valvasor.org - Life and work of Johann Weichard Freiherr von Valvasor
- J.W.F. Valvasor Digital Library on scribd.com
- Istria on the Internet, Relevant non-Istrians: Johann Weichard Freiherr von Valvasor