John Silber

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John Silber
Tribute to John Silber (from joncouture.com).jpeg
 
Seventh President of Boston University
In office
1971 – 1996
Preceded by Calvin B. T. Lee (Acting)
Succeeded by Jon Westling (8th President)
Chancellor of Boston University
In office
1996–2002
President (Ad Interim) of Boston University
In office
2002–2003
Preceded by Jon Westling (8th President)
Succeeded by Aram Chobanian (Ad Interim)
Personal details
Born (1926-08-15)August 15, 1926
San Antonio, Texas
Died September 27, 2012(2012-09-27) (aged 86)
Brookline, Massachusetts
Spouse(s) Kathryn Underwood
Children David Silber, Rachel Devlin, Judith Ballan, Alexandra Mock, Martha Hathaway, Ruth Belmonte, Caroline Lavender,
Alma mater Trinity University
Religion Presbyterian[1]
Jon Westling served as acting president from 1987-88 while Silber was on sabbatical, and again in 1990 while Silber was running for Governor of Massachusetts.[2][3][4]

John Robert Silber (August 15, 1926 – September 27, 2012) was an American academician and candidate for public office. From 1971 to 1996 he was President of Boston University and from 1996 to 2002 Chancellor of the University. From 2002 to 2003 he again served as President (Ad Interim), and from 2003 until his death he held the title of President Emeritus.[5] In 1990, he won the Democratic gubernatorial primary to become one of two major-party candidates for governor of Massachusetts in the general election of 1990. He lost that election to the moderate Republican William Weld, who won by 38,000 votes.[6]

Taking his PhD at Yale, Silber was professor of philosophy and served as dean of the University of Texas's College of Arts and Sciences (1967-70). He had a liberal reputation in his Texas days but at Boston University he was best known as a conservative spokesman in academe, fighting against liberalism, the New Left, and multiculturalism.

Family, education[edit]

Silber was born in San Antonio, Texas,[7] the second son of Paul George Silber, an immigrant architect from Germany,[8] and Jewell (née Joslin) Silber, a Texas-born elementary school teacher.[9] Both of his parents were Presbyterians. As an adult, he learned that his father's side of the family was Jewish and that his aunt had been killed at Auschwitz.[10] His father had never said anything about it.[5]

Silber's father owned an architectural practice which collapsed[11] during the Great Depression. John Silber graduated from Jefferson High School in San Antonio in 1943, where he was a member of the National Honor Society and played trumpet in the HS Band. At Trinity University in San Antonio, he double-majored in fine arts and philosophy.[12] In the fall of 1943, as a freshman at Trinity, he met a sophomore named Kathryn Underwood, daughter of farmers from Normanna, Texas. The couple were engaged in January 1946 and married on July 12, 1947. Silber graduated summa cum laude from Trinity in June 1947. Silber and his wife had eight children, one son and six daughters by birth and one son by adoption. Their first-born son and daughter were born before 1955. Five more daughters were born over the next eleven years.[13] Their first-born son, David Silber,[14] died of AIDS at age 41 at their home in December 1994.[11][15]

Early academic career[edit]

Silber received his M.A. in 1952 and worked first as a teaching assistant and then as an instructor while pursuing a doctoral degree. Peter H. Hare, Philosophy Professor Emeritus, at SUNY State University of New York at Buffalo remembers Silber as a teaching assistant at Yale in the mid-1950s while Hare was still an undergraduate. Hare wrote, "George Schrader was the lecturer in the introductory course where John Silber was the TA leading my discussion section. Silber, a rabid Kantian, was the person with whom I had my first heated philosophical arguments as an adult."[16]

In 1959, Silber earned a Fulbright scholarship, which enabled him to travel to West Germany to teach at the University of Bonn for a year. It was there that he learned of his father’s Jewish heritage.[5]

Silber's first full-time faculty job was at University of Texas at Austin (UT) where he chaired the Philosophy department from 1962–1967. Larry Hickman, Director, Center for Dewey Studies, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale recalls his time as a student in philosophy at UT. "The department chairs during those years, John Silber and Irwin C. Lieb, were busy using Texas oil money to collect the very best faculty and graduate students they could find."[17]

While at UT, Silber founded the Texas society to abolish capital punishment.[18]

In 1967, Silber became Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at UT. Three years later, in a widely publicized firing, Silber was removed as Dean in 1970 by the UT Regents Chairman Frank Craig Erwin, Jr.[19]

Boston University[edit]

Silber was named president of Boston University (BU) on December 17, 1970.[20] He took office the following month.[1] With an annual salary that reached $800,000, Silber ranked as one of the highest paid college presidents in the country. He took a one-year leave of absence from BU in 1987, and then again in 1990 when he ran for governor of Massachusetts as a Democrat. He returned to his position at BU after losing the election to William Weld.[2] In 1996, he was named university chancellor after stepping down as president. That same year he was appointed by William Weld to serve as head of the Massachusetts Board of Education.

Among Silber's recruits to the Boston University faculty were the author Saul Bellow and Elie Wiesel, writer and concentration camp survivor.

Tension with faculty and students[edit]

Under Silber, Boston University increased in size but questions about his leadership style caused splits among faculty and alumni. In his early days as BU President, Silber accused the faculty of mediocrity and the students of fostering anarchy, and they, in turn, accused him of tyrannical rule. Essentially, in response to the Silber administration, the faculty organized a union in 1974 and the following year voted to affiliate with the American Association of University Professors (AAUP). Fritz Ringer, a BU faculty member, served as president of the BU chapter of the AAUP for eight years. According to Perspectives Online, the publication of the American Historical Association, "...at a time when the BU president (Silber) was running roughshod over faculty rights, Fritz Ringer bravely and vigorously championed the principles of academic freedom."[21][22]

Initially, the Silber administration would not negotiate with the union, and in 1976 the refusal was challenged in a lawsuit. Two-thirds of the faculty and deans demanded the board of trustees fire Silber. The board refused. In 1978 the courts decided in favor of the AAUP position and Boston University was forced to negotiate. The faculty conducted a brief strike in 1979 which was followed by a clerical workers' walkout in which several faculty members refused to cross the picket line. Silber charged five of these faculty members with negligence and moved to have them disciplined. At that point faculty members throughout Boston signed a petition to have Silber removed.[23]

Silber was especially visible for confrontations with radical historian Howard Zinn. In one incident, Zinn arranged to take a sabbatical and teach in Paris, with Herbert Marcuse teaching at BU in the meantime. Silber vetoed the move. Silber also prevented Zinn from receiving pay raises and promotions over a number of years. In 1982, the AAUP intervened on Zinn's behalf, eventually forcing Silber to compensate Zinn for back pay.[24]

In 1987 the courts ruled that faculty in the local AAUP chapter were "managerial" employees, and therefore could not engage in collective bargaining.[25]

Endowment Investment Controversy[edit]

During his tenure as President, $85 million, nearly one fifth of the Boston University endowment, was invested in a biotechnology company named Seragen. Investments continued, even after a rebuke from state regulators because of the risk involved. The bulk of the investment was lost when the Seragen stock collapsed.[14][26]

Gay Rights Issues[edit]

In 2002, Silber ordered that the Boston University Academy, a prep school operated by BU, disband its gay-straight alliance, a student club that staged demonstrations to publicize the deleterious effects of homophobia. Silber dismissed the stated purpose of the club—to serve as a support group for gay students and to promote tolerance and understanding between gay and straight students—accusing the club of being a vehicle for "homosexual recruitment." Silber denounced the group for "evangelism" and "homosexual militancy" with the purpose of promoting gay sex.[15]

Silber's deferred compensation[edit]

On May 10, 2006, The New York Times reported that the trustees of Boston University had given Silber an unprecedented compensation package, including deferred compensation, worth $6.1 million in 2005.[27]

Political activities[edit]

Silber advocated integration at the University of Texas, and was the first person to chair the Texas Society to Abolish Capital Punishment.[18] He also promoted Operation Head Start, an early education program for preschoolers.[citation needed]

In the Massachusetts gubernatorial election of 1990 Silber ran for Governor of Massachusetts as a Democrat. His outsider status as well as his outspoken and combative style were at first seen as advantages in a year in which voters were disenchanted with the Democratic Party establishment. As the Democratic nominee, Silber faced Republican William Weld. Silber's angry personality, which appalled many voters, coupled with Weld's socially liberal views helped Weld in the race. During the gubernatorial race, Silber regularly overreacted to questions from the press. These overreactions came to be known as "Silber shockers". On the campaign trail he called Massachusetts a "welfare magnet" and proposed cutting off benefits for unmarried mothers who have a second child while still on public aid. He questioned saving the lives of terminally ill elderly people, quoting Shakespeare and saying that "when you've had a long life and you're ripe, then it's time to go."

He said that the feminist Gloria Steinem, the black Muslim leader, Louis Farrakhan, and white supremacists are "the kind of people I wouldn't appoint as judges."[10] In a key interview late in the campaign, Silber was asked by WCVB-TV newscaster Natalie Jacobson to name his weaknesses, and he snarled back that finding his weaknesses was her job, and he did not need to list them for her. After this performance, Silber's poll numbers declined rapidly. Ultimately, Weld was able to hold on to a significant portion of the Republican base while appealing to large numbers of Democrats and left-of-center independents, enabling him to defeat Silber by four points. Weld became the first Republican to serve as governor since 1974.[28]

Publications[edit]

Silber wrote four books. Straight Shooting: What's wrong with America and How to Fix It (Harper & Row, 1989), Architecture of the Absurd: How "Genius" Disfigured a Practical Art (Quantuck Lane, 2007), Kant's Ethics: The Good, Freedom, and the Will (DeGruyter, 2012) and Seeking the North Star (David R. Godine, Publisher, 2013).

Straight Shooting is part autobiography and partly a statement of Silber's concern that the United States has experienced a decline in moral and spiritual values traceable to excessive avarice and materialism. He also faults society with excessive reliance on litigation to settle disputes.

Architecture of the Absurd discusses Silber's view that certain celebrity architects frequently fail to meet the needs of their clients because they consider themselves primarily sculptors and do not adequately consider financial constraints, the physical needs of building occupants or the urban environment. He is critical of architects Josep Lluís Sert, Le Corbusier, Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind and Steven Holl.[29] One example cited by Silber is Le Corbusier's megalomaniacal 1930s plan for Algiers, which called for the demolition of the entire city. A more recent example is Frank Gehry's Walt Disney Concert Hall which, before it was modified at additional expense, made rooms of nearby condominiums unbearably warm, causing their air-conditioning costs to skyrocket, and created hot spots on adjacent sidewalks of as much as 140 degrees Fahrenheit.[30]

In 1976, BU published a 32-page article by Silber called "Democracy: Its Counterfeits and Its Promise". Other of his articles have been published in Philosophical Quarterly, Philosophical Review and Kant-Studien where he served as editor.

Legacy[edit]

On May 14, 2008, the City of Boston renamed Sherborn St., which bisects the main Boston University Campus from Commonwealth Ave. to Back Street, John R. Silber Way. Boston Mayor Thomas Menino said that it was "fitting" to rename the street "John R. Silber Way." "Was there any other way?" Menino quipped, referring to Silber's four decades of influence on the B.U. campus.[31]

Death[edit]

Boston University announced Silber's death on September 27, 2012.[32][33][34][35][36] He was 86. At a memorial service on November 29, 2012 the writer Tom Wolfe spoke to the 750 people who gathered, saying that Silber was a man who "couldn't bring himself to flatter."[37]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Harris, Joyce Saenz (December 29, 1991). "John Silber The Texan in exile is Boston University's feisty philosopher-king". The Dallas Morning News. 
  2. ^ a b Russell, Jenna (July 10, 2002). "Westling Resigns As BU President, Silber Takes Reins". The Boston Globe. 
  3. ^ Dembner, Alice (November 8, 1994). "Some see first hints of a Silber exit in new BU task force on succession". The Boston Globe. 
  4. ^ Higgins, Richard (September 10, 1987). "Maitre is Named Dean at B.U. School". The Boston Globe. 
  5. ^ a b c McFadden, Robert D. (September 27, 2012). "John Silber, Boston University President, Dies at 86". The New York Times. 
  6. ^ Weld Beats Silber In Tight Governor's Race | News | The Harvard Crimson
  7. ^ John Silber Feted at Gala Tribute - re> BOSTON, April 13 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/
  8. ^ Levinson, Arlene (April 1, 1990). "Texan Gunning for Massachusetts Governorship : Politics: John Silber's take-no-prisoners style raises hackles and consciousness among more genteel Bay Staters". Los Angeles Times. 
  9. ^ "Jewell Joslin Silber, 98, Teacher, mother of BU president". Boston Globe. 17 Jan 1993. p. 95. 
  10. ^ a b Barron, James (20 Sep 1990). "THE 1990 CAMPAIGN: Man in the News; Outspoken Newcomer: Dr. John Robert Silber". New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "Profile: Applying the Silber Standard to Boston U." by David Barboza The New York Times Nov. 5, 1995
  12. ^ THE ALCALDE, July/August 2007, p. 30.
  13. ^ Boston University News Release March 26, 2005 "Kathryn Underwood Silber: Texas Native Was First Lady of Boston University for 25 Years"
  14. ^ a b Barboza, David (20 Sep 1998). "Loving A Stock, Not Wisely But Too Well". New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "The Last Candid Man, A Homophobe Hides Behind His Right to Discriminate", by Richard Goldstein, The Village Voice, October 15, 2002
  16. ^ A Philosophical Autobiography by the late Peter H. Hare, Professor Emeritus, SUNY at Buffalo
  17. ^ A Philosophical Autobiography by Larry Hickman
  18. ^ a b BU bio
  19. ^ ERWIN, FRANK CRAIG, JR. | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)
  20. ^ AP (December 18, 1970). "BU Selects Texan As Its President". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  21. ^ http://www.historians.org/perspectives/issues/2006/0610/0610mem2.cfm "Fritz K. Ringer" Perspectives Online published by the American Historical Association ISSN 1556-8563 October 2006
  22. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20060901085621/http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/u/FMPro?-db=ustory&-lay=a&-format=d.html&storyid=4301&-Find Fritz K. Ringer in University Times, the faculty and staff newspaper at University of Pittsburgh.
  23. ^ Zinn, Howard (Jun 1980). "To Disagree Is to Be Put on the Enemies List". The Progressive 44 (6). 
  24. ^ Greenberg, David (March 19, 2003). "Howard Zinn's Influential Mutilations of American History". The New Republic. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  25. ^ Euben, Donna. "Collective Bargaining Revised and Revisited (2001)". AAUP. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  26. ^ Jennifer Babson, "Troubled Seragen sold to Calif. biotech firm" The Boston Globe, May 12, 1998
  27. ^ "Boston University Gave Ex-Chief $6.1 Million, Officials Disclose", The New York Times, May 10, 2006
  28. ^ "Throw Some of the Bums Out!" Time, October 1, 1990
  29. ^ "Celebrity Architects", Silber, J. The New York Times, December 22, 2007.
  30. ^ Wikipedia article: "Walt Disney Concert Hall".
  31. ^ Boston Globe, May 15, 2008 'Doing it my way'
  32. ^ The Boston Globe http://cache.boston.com/bonzai-fba/Original_PDF/2012/09/27/silber_letter__1348756058_5962.pdf |url= missing title (help). 
  33. ^ "Former Boston University president John Silber dies at 86". The Boston Globe. September 27, 2012. [dead link]
  34. ^ Robert D. McFadden (September 27, 2012). "John Silber Dies at 86; Led Boston University". The New York Times. 
  35. ^ Mark Feeney (September 27, 2012). "John Silber, terrain-changing BU leader, political force, dies". The Boston Globe. 
  36. ^ Roger Kimball (November 2012). "John Silber, 1926-2012". The New Criterion. 
  37. ^ http://alcalde.texasexes.org/2012/11/illustrious-friends-remember-john-r-silber/

Further reading[edit]

  • Kimball, Roger. "John Silber, 1926-2012," New Criterion (Nov 2012) Vol. 31, No. 3 online

External links[edit]

Academic offices
Preceded by
Calvin B. T. Lee (Acting)
Seventh President of Boston University
1971–1996
Succeeded by
Jon Westling (Eighth President)
Preceded by
position created
Chancellor of Boston University
1996–2002
Succeeded by
position unfilled
Preceded by
Jon Westling (Eighth President)
President (Ad Interim) of Boston University
2002–2003
Succeeded by
Aram Chobanian
(President Ad Interim)
Party political offices
Preceded by
Michael Dukakis
Massachusetts Democratic Party gubernatorial candidate
1990 (lost)
Succeeded by
Mark Roosevelt