Journal of Discourses
The Journal of Discourses (often abbreviated J.D.) is a 26-volume collection of public sermons by early leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The first editions of the Journal were published in England by George D. Watt, the stenographer of Brigham Young. Publication began in 1854, with the endorsement of the church's First Presidency, and ended in 1886. The Journal is one of the richest sources of early Mormon theology and thinking. It includes 1,438 sermons given by 55 church leaders, including most numerously Young, John Taylor, Orson Pratt, Heber C. Kimball, and George Q. Cannon.
George D. Watt recorded the first four volumes of sermons himself, and he continued to contribute through volume twelve, but at least eleven other stenographers were involved. By far, Brigham Young has the most sermons recorded in the Journal, with 390. It was said that:
"Brigham Young secured stenographic reports of his addresses. As he traveled among the people, reporters accompanied him. All that he said was recorded. Practically all of these discourses (from December 16, 1851 to August 19, 1877) were published in the Journal of Discourses, which was widely distributed. The public utterances of few great historical figures have been so faithfully and fully preserved."
The full title of the journal was inconsistent across volumes. The title of the first volume was, Journal of Discourses by Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others. In volume 6, the title was shortened to Journal of Discourses by President Brigham Young, His Two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others. In some of the first 19 volumes, the word "Delivered" was added to the title to precede the word "by". Some of these volumes omitted the words "and Others" and some replaced the phrase "His Two Counsellors" with "His Counselors".
Volume 20 was the first published after the death of Brigham Young, and the title used was Journal of Discourses by President John Taylor and Other Members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Also, Remarks by Other Prominent Elders. Volume 21—published after John Taylor had been ordained as Young's successor to the office of President of the Church—adopted the title Journal of Discourses by President John Taylor, His Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles, and Others, which remained consistent until the final 26th volume.
"The Journal of Discourses deservedly ranks as one of the standard works of the Church, and every rightminded Saint will certainly welcome with joy every Number as it comes forth from the press as an additional reflector of 'the light that shines from Zion's hill.'"
The term "standard works" is modernly used in the LDS Church as shorthand for "canonical scripture" and applies only to the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. However, this usage arose some time after the quotation given above, and Mormon scholars do not believe it to be the sense in which Cannon uses it. In the normal academic sense of the term, the Journal is arguably still a "standard work" of the LDS Church.
Reservations about the Journal can be found in official LDS Church publications as early as 1978. The current official position of the church on the issue is as follows:
"The Journal of Discourses is not an official publication of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is a compilation of sermons and other materials from the early years of the Church, which were transcribed and then published. It included some doctrinal instruction but also practical teaching, some of which is speculative in nature and some of which is only of historical interest. ... Questions have been raised about the accuracy of some transcriptions. Modern technology and processes were not available for verifying the accuracy of transcriptions, and some significant mistakes have been documented. The Journal of Discourses includes interesting and insightful teachings by early Church leaders; however, by itself it is not an authoritative source of Church doctrine."
Interpretations of some of the themes in the Journal have and are currently under debate between many anti-Mormons and Mormons. Some of the issues under debate between these groups include blood atonement, the Adam–God doctrine, plural marriage, and the exclusionary Negro doctrine.
- "Letter from the First Presidency", Journal of Discourses 1:6.
- John A. Widtsoe, Discourses of Brigham Young (1925), Deseret Book, 1954 edition: ISBN 0-87747-066-9.
- "Preface", Journal of Discourses 8:3.
- "Journal of Discourses - As doctrine and one of the "standard works" of the Church". Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Jones, Gerald E. (August 1978), "I’ve been reading the Journal of Discourses with a great deal of interest and pleasure, but I notice that they are not printed by the Church. Can you tell me how authoritative I should consider them to be?", I Have a Question, Ensign: 31–32
- "Journal of Discourses", Gospel Study: Study by Topic, LDS.org (LDS Church).
- Holzapfel, Richard Neitzel (2000), "Journal of Discourses", Encyclopedia of Latter-day Saint History, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, pp. 592–93.
- Watt, Ronald G. (Spring 2007), The Beginnings of "The Journal of Discourses" : A Confrontation Between George D Watt and Willard Richards, Utah Historical Quarterly 75 (2): 134–148.
- Watt, Ronald G. (1992), "Journal of Discourses", in Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 769–70, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140.
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- Journal of Discourses (PDF scans): each page of all 26 volumes, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University.
- Journal of Discourses: includes speaker pictures, a citation guide, and direct links to scanned images.