Justice and Equality Movement
|Justice and Equality Movement|
|Participant in the Darfur conflict and the Sudan–SPLM-N conflict|
|War in Darfur|
|UNMIS / AMIS / UNAMID|
|History of Darfur|
The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) (Arabic: حركة العدل والمساواة, Ḥarakat al-ʿAdl wal-musāwāh ) is a rebel group involved in the Darfur conflict of Sudan, led by Khalil Ibrahim.  Along with other rebel groups, such as the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), they are fighting against the Sudanese Government, including the government's proxy militia, the Janjaweed. The JEM is also a member of the Eastern Front, a rebel coalition formerly active in the east of Sudan along the Eritrean border. After the Eastern Front signed a peace deal with the central government, the JEM lost access to its funding from Eritrea.
The beginnings of the Justice and Equality Movement trace to the writers of the Black Book, a manuscript published in 2000 that details the structural inequality in the country; the JEM leader, Khalil Ibrahim, was one of the authors. The JEM embraces an Islamist ideology, and although the Sudanese government links the group directly to Hassan al-Turabi, leaders of the group and al-Turabi himself deny that claim. al-Turabi blames the government for "aggravating the situation", and many of the followers of al-Turabi joined the JEM.
On January 20, 2006, the Justice and Equality Movement declared a merger with the Sudan Liberation Movement, along with other rebel groups, to form the Alliance of Revolutionary Forces of West Sudan; however, the JEM and SLM negotiated as separate groups with peace talks with the government in May 2006.
In October 2007, the JEM attacked the Defra oilfield in the Kordofan region of Sudan. The Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company, a Chinese-led consortium, controls the field. The next month, a group of 135 Chinese engineers arrived in Darfur to work on the Defra field. Ibrahim told reporters, "We oppose them coming because the Chinese are not interested in human rights. It is just interested in Sudan's resources." The JEM claims that the revenue from oil sold to China funds the Sudanese government and the Janjaweed militia.
On the morning of December 11, 2007, Khalil Ibrahim claimed that JEM forces fought and defeated Sudanese government troops guarding a Chinese-run oilfield in the Kordofan region. Khartoum officials, however, denied that any oil fields had come under attack. Ibrahim said that the attack was part of a JEM campaign to rid Sudan of Chinese-run oilfields and stated that "[The JEM] want all Chinese companies to leave. They have been warned many times. They should not be there."
On May 11, 2008, JEM attacked the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The government declared victory, saying that the attack had been repelled and leading members of the group had been killed, although the JEM said that the attack was successful. Eltahir Elfaki, the General Secretary of JEM's legislative council, vowed that the war would henceforth be fought across the country, saying that "We haven't changed our tactics. From the beginning, Jem is a national movement and it has a national agenda." Khalil Ibrahim declared that "This is just the start of a process and the end is the termination of this regime".
In April 2009, JEM leader Khalil Ibrahim told Aljazeera English in an exclusive interview recorded at his rebel base camp on the Chad-Sudan border that JEM would seek the independence of Darfur if South Sudan became independent. 
JEM signed a truce with Sudan's government in February 2010. On December 25, 2011 the Sudanese People's Armed Forces announced it had killed Ibrahim near Wad Banda in North Kordofan.  His brother Gibril Ibrahim was chosen to replace him on 26 January 2012.
Notes and references 
- BBC Staff (24 February 2009) "Who are Sudan's Darfur rebels?" BBC News
- Aljazeera English, Sudan rebels fight to forge new country, 15 April 2009 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TZzywqPJ7IE
- Who are Sudan's Jem rebels? 24 February 2010
- Al-Turabi denies stirring Darfur conflict (Al-Jazeera) 31 December 2003
- Staff (24 January 2006) "Two rebel groups in Sudan join forces" World Tribume.com
- "Darfur rebels spurn Chinese force". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2007-11-24. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
- "Sudan rebels 'attack oilfield'". Al Jazeera English. 2007-12-11. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
- "Sudan 'repulses' rebel attack", Al Jazeera, May 11, 2008.
- "Sudan leader 'terrified' by arrest", Al Jazeera, May 13, 2008.
- "Sudan Rebels Fight to Forge New Country". Aljazeera English. 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- "Sudan, Darfur rebel group reach landmark deal". Presstv.com. 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2010-03-24.
- "Sudan: Brother of Darfur rebels' late leader takes over". BBC News. 2012-01-26.
- Justice and Equality Movement The JEM's homepage
- Photojournalist's Account - Images of the Justice and Equality Movement and Darfur's displaced
- Darfur conflict
- BBC background on the SLA and JEM: 
- BBC Darfur on the brink of new conflict as the SLA now joins the government fighting against rebel groups including the JEM: 
-  - Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company's website.