Khartoum

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Khartoum
الخرطوم al-Kharṭūm
Khartoum skyline at night
Khartoum skyline at night
Official seal of Khartoum
Seal
Nickname(s): the Triangular Capital
Khartoum is located in Sudan
Khartoum
Khartoum
Khartoum's location in Sudan
Coordinates: 15°38′N 032°32′E / 15.633°N 32.533°E / 15.633; 32.533Coordinates: 15°38′N 032°32′E / 15.633°N 32.533°E / 15.633; 32.533
Country Sudan
State Khartoum
Government
 • Governor Abdul Rahman Alkhidir
Population (2008)
 • Urban 639,598
 • Metro 5,274,321 (Khartoum State)
Demonym Khartoumese, Khartoumian (the latter more properly designates a Mesolithic archaeological stratum)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC+3)
Satellite view of Khartoum
Khartoum with White and Blue Niles

Khartoum (/kɑrˈtm/ kar-TOOM)[1][2][note 1] is the capital and second largest city of the Republic of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as the "al-Mogran", meaning the Confluence. The main Nile continues to flow north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.

Divided by the Niles, Khartoum is a tripartite metropolis with an estimated overall population of over five million people, consisting of Khartoum proper,[clarification needed] and linked by bridges to Khartoum North called (al-Kharṭūm Baḥrī ) and Omdurman (Umm Durmān ) to the west.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the word Khartoum is uncertain. One theory argues that khartoum is derived from Arabic kharṭūm خرطوم meaning 'trunk' or 'hose', probably referring to the narrow strip of land extending between the Blue and White Niles.[3] Captain J. A. Grant, who reached Khartoum in 1863 with Captain Speke's expedition, thought that the name was most probably from the Arabic qurtum, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), which was cultivated extensively in Egypt for its oil to be used as fuel.[4]

Founding (1821–1899)[edit]

Khartoum at the Bend of the Nile

Khartoum was established 15 miles (24 km) north of the ancient city of Soba in 1821 by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of Egypt's ruler, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had just incorporated Sudan into his realm. Originally, Khartoum served as an outpost for the Egyptian Army, but the settlement quickly grew into a regional center of trade. It also became a focal point for the slave trade. Later, it became the administrative center of Sudan and official capital.

Troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad began a siege of Khartoum on 13 March 1884, against defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon. The siege ended in a massacre of the Anglo-Egyptian garrison. The heavily damaged city fell to the Mahdists on 26 January 1885 and all its inhabitants were put to death.[5]

Omdurman was the scene of the bloody Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898, during which British forces under Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist forces defending the city.

Modern history (20th–21st centuries)[edit]

In 1973, the city was the site of an anomalous hostage crisis in which members of Black September held ten hostages at the Saudi Arabian embassy, five of whom were diplomats. The US ambassador, the US deputy ambassador, and the Belgian chargé d'affaires were murdered. The remaining hostages were released (see 1973 Khartoum diplomatic assassinations). A 1973 United States Department of State document, declassified in 2006, concluded "The Khartoum operation was planned and carried out with the full knowledge and personal approval of Yasser Arafat."[6]

The first oil pipeline between Khartoum and the Port of Sudan was completed in 1977.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Khartoum was the destination for hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing conflicts in neighboring nations such as Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Uganda. Many Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees assimilated into society, while others settled in large slums at the outskirts of the city. Since the mid-1980s, large numbers of refugees from South Sudan and Darfur fleeing the violence of the Second Sudanese Civil War and Darfur conflict have settled around Khartoum.

In 1991, Osama bin Laden purchased a house in the affluent al-Riyadh neighborhood of the city and another in Soba. He lived there until 1996 when he was banished from the country. Following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, the United States accused bin Laden's al-Qaeda group and launched cruise missile attacks (20 August) on the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in northern Khartoum. The destruction of the factory produced diplomatic tension between the U.S. and Sudan. The ruins of the factory are now a tourist attraction.

After the sudden death of SPLA head and vice-president of Sudan, John Garang, at the end of July 2005, there were three days of violent riots in the capital. The riots finally died down after Southern Sudanese politicians and tribal leaders sent strong messages to the rioters. The situation could have been much more dire; even so, the death toll was at least 24, as youths from southern Sudan attacked northern Sudanese and clashed with security forces.[7]

The Organisation of African Unity summit of 18–22 July 1978 was held in Khartoum, during which Sudan was awarded the OAU presidency. The African Union summit of 16–24 January 2006 was held in Khartoum.

The Arab League summit of 28–29 March 2006 was held in Khartoum, during which the Arab League awarded Sudan the Arab League presidency.

On 10 May 2008 the Darfur rebel group of the Justice and Equality Movement moved into the city where they engaged in heavy fighting with Sudanese government forces. Their soldiers included minors and their goal was the toppling of Omar Hassan al-Bashir's government, though the Sudanese government succeeded in beating back the assault.[8][9][10]

On 23 October 2012 an explosion at the Yarmouk munitions factory killed two people and injured another person. The Sudanese government has claimed that the explosion was the result of an Israeli airstrike.[11]

Panorama of Khartoum

Climate[edit]

Khartoum suburbs at night

Khartoum features a hot desert climate, with only the months of July and August seeing significant precipitation. Khartoum averages a little over 155 millimetres (6.1 in) of precipitation per year. Based on annual mean temperatures, Khartoum is one of the hottest major cities in the world. Temperatures may exceed 53 °C (127 °F) in mid-summer. Its average annual high temperature is 37.1 °C (99 °F), with six months of the year seeing an average monthly high temperature of at least 38 °C (100 °F). Furthermore, none of its monthly average high temperatures falls below 30 °C (86 °F). This is something not seen in other major cities with hot desert climates such as Riyadh, Baghdad and Phoenix. Temperatures cool off considerably during the night, with Khartoum's lowest average low temperatures of the year just above 15 °C (59 °F).

Climate data for Khartoum
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
33.0
(91.4)
36.8
(98.2)
40.1
(104.2)
41.9
(107.4)
41.3
(106.3)
38.4
(101.1)
37.3
(99.1)
39.1
(102.4)
39.3
(102.7)
35.2
(95.4)
31.8
(89.2)
37
(98.58)
Average low °C (°F) 15.6
(60.1)
17.0
(62.6)
20.5
(68.9)
23.6
(74.5)
27.1
(80.8)
27.3
(81.1)
25.9
(78.6)
25.3
(77.5)
26.0
(78.8)
25.5
(77.9)
21.0
(69.8)
17.1
(62.8)
22.66
(72.78)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.4
(0.016)
4.0
(0.157)
46.3
(1.823)
75.2
(2.961)
25.4
(1)
4.8
(0.189)
0.7
(0.028)
0
(0)
156.8
(6.174)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.9 1.2 4.8 4.8 3.2 1.2 0 0 16.3
 % humidity 27 22 17 16 19 28 43 49 40 28 27 30 28.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 341 311 310 330 300 300 279 279 300 310 330 341 3,731
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)[12]
Source #2: BBC Weather[13]

Demographics[edit]

Year Population[14]
City Metropolitan area
1907[15] 69,349 n.a.
1956 93,100 245,800
1973 333,906 748,300
1983 476,218 1,340,646
1993 947,483 2,919,773
2008 Census Preliminary 639,598 5,274,321

Economy[edit]

Development in Khartoum

After the signing of the historic Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLA), the Government of Sudan has begun a massive development project.[16][17] In 2007, the biggest projects in Khartoum were the Al-Mogran Development Project, two five-star hotels, a new airport, Mac Nimir Bridge (finished in October 2007) and the Tuti Bridge that links Khartoum to Tuti Island.

In the 21st century, Khartoum has developed based on Sudan's oil wealth. The center of the city has tree-lined streets. Khartoum has the highest concentration of economic activity in the country. This has changed as major economic developments take place in other parts of the country, like oil exploration in the South, the Giad Industrial Complex in Al Jazirah state and White Nile Sugar Project in Central Sudan, and the Merowe Dam in the North.[citation needed]

Among the city's industries are printing, glass manufacturing, food processing, and textiles. Petroleum products are now produced in the far north of Khartoum state, providing fuel and jobs for the city. One of Sudan's largest refineries is located in northern Khartoum.[citation needed]

Retailing[edit]

The Souq Al Arabi is Khartoum's largest open air market. The "souq" is spread over several blocks in the center of Khartoum proper just south of the Great Mosque (Mesjid al-Kabir) and the minibus station. It is divided into separate sections, including one focused entirely on gold.[citation needed]

Al Qasr Street and Al Jamhoriyah Street are considered the most famous high streets in Khartoum State.

Afra Mall is located in the southern suburb Arkeweet. The Afra Mall has a supermarket, retail outlets, coffee shops, a bowling alley, movie theaters, and a children's playground.

In 2011, Sudan opened the Hotel Section and part of the food court of the new, Cornithia hotel Tower. The Mall/Shopping section is still under construction.

Education[edit]

Khartoum is the main location for most of Sudan's top educational bodies.[citation needed]

High schools[edit]

Universities[edit]

Public universities in Khartoum are:[20]

Private universities include:[21]

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

Khartoum is home to the largest airport in Sudan, Khartoum International Airport. It is the main hub for Sudan Airways, Sudan's main carrier. The airport was built at the southern edge of the city; but with Khartoum's rapid growth and consequent urban sprawl, the airport is now located in the heart of the city. A new international airport is currently being built about 40 km (25 mi) south of the city center.There has been delays to start construction because lack of funding of the project and it's unknown when the airport will be completed. It will replace the current airport in Khartoum as Sudan's main airport.

Bridges[edit]

The following bridges cross the Blue Nile and connect Khartoum to Khartoum North:

The following bridges cross the White Nile and connect Khartoum to Omdurman:

the following bridges cross from Omdurman: to Khartoum North:

The following bridges cross to Tuti from Khartoum states three cities

Rail[edit]

Khartoum has rail lines from Egypt, Port Sudan, and El Obeid. All are operated by Sudan Railways. Some lines also extended to some parts of south Sudan

Culture[edit]

A statue, claimed to depict Natakamani, at the front of the National Museum of Sudan

Museums[edit]

The largest museum in all of Sudan is the National Museum of Sudan. Founded in 1971, it contains works from different epochs of Sudanese history. Among the exhibits are two Egyptian temples of Buhen and Semna which were originally built by Queen Hatshepsut and Pharaoh Tuthmosis III respectively but relocated to Khartoum upon the flooding of Lake Nasser.

Another museum in Khartoum is the Palace Museum, located adjacent to the historical Presidential Palace on Blue Nile Street.

Botanical gardens[edit]

Khartoum is home to a small botanical garden, in the Mogran district of the city.

Clubs[edit]

Khartoum is home to several clubs such as the Sailing Club, the German Club, the Greek Hotel,[22] the Coptic Club, the Syrian Club and the International Club. There is also a football club situated in Khartoum – Al Khartoum

Twin cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The name Khartoum came from Arabic: الخرطومal-Ḫarṭūm / al-Kharṭūm / al-ḵarṭūm , literally means "the hose".
  1. ^ Dictionary Reference: Khartoum
  2. ^ The Free Dictionary: Khartoum
  3. ^ Room, Adrian (2006), Placenames of the World (Second edition)., McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3. P. 194.
  4. ^ Walkley, C. E. J. (1935). "THE STORY OF KHARTOUM". Sudan Notes and Records (University of Khartoum) 18 (2): 221–241. doi:10.2307/41710712 (inactive 2014-05-09). JSTOR 41710712.  edit
  5. ^ Hammond, Peter (2005), Slavery, Terrorism & Islam, Cape Town, South Africa: Christian Liberty Books 
  6. ^ "The Seizure of the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Khartoum". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 2006-12-16. Retrieved 2014-01-28. 
  7. ^ "World | Africa | Riots after Sudan VP Garang dies". BBC News. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Curfew in capital as Sudanese army clash near Khartoum with Darfur rebels – Sudan Tribune 10 May 2008
  9. ^ Sudanese rebels 'reach Khartoum' – BBC News 10 May 2008
  10. ^ PHOTOS: Sudan capital after today's attack from Darfur JEM – Sudan Tribune 10 May 2008
  11. ^ "Khartoum fire blamed on Israeli bombing". Al Jazeera. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012. 
  12. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Khartoum". UN. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  13. ^ "Average Conditions Khartoum, Sudan". BBC Weather. Retrieved 21 August 2009. 
  14. ^ "Sudan: Die wichtigsten Orte mit Statistiken zu ihrer Bevölkerung". bevoelkerungsstatistik.de. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  15. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica von 1911: Band 15, Seite 773". Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  16. ^ "Sudan and UNDP launch Millennium Goals project". Sudan Tribune. 20075-09-05. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
  17. ^ Winter, Joseph (24 April 2007). "Khartoum booms as Darfur burns". BBC. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
  18. ^ "britisheducationsudan.com". britisheducationsudan.com. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  19. ^ [1][dead link]
  20. ^ "Sudanese higher education". Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  21. ^ "Universities of Sudan Ahfad university for women". Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  22. ^ "Reuters.com". Africa.reuters.com. 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  23. ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Turkish). Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Khartoum at Wikimedia Commons