Map of the Philippines with Kalinga highlighted
|Region||Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)|
|Founded||February 14, 1995|
|• Type||Province of the Philippines|
|• Governor||Jocel Baac (Liberal Party) (Sr. Felisa Pedro)|
|• Congressman||Manuel S. Agyao (Liberal Party)|
|• Vice Governor||Allen Jesse C. Mangaoang (Nacionalista Party)|
|• Total||3,231.25 km2 (1,247.59 sq mi)|
|Area rank||44th out of 81|
|Elevation||2,329 m (7,641 ft)|
|• Rank||70th out of 81|
|• Density||62/km2 (160/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||78th out of 81|
|• Independent cities||0|
|• Component cities||1|
|• Districts||Lone district of Kalinga|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|ZIP code||3800 to 3808|
|ISO 3166 code||PH-KAL|
|Spoken languages||Kalinga, Ilocano, Tagalog, English|
The Province of Kalinga (Ilokano: Probinsya ti Kalinga, Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Kalinga, Tagalog pronunciation: [kɐˈliŋɐ]) is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region of Luzon. Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north. Kalinga and Apayao are the result of the 1995 partitioning of Kalinga-Apayao; this was to better service the respective needs of the various indigenous peoples in the area.
The topography of Kalinga province is rugged and sloping, with mountain peaks ranging from 1,500 to 2,500 metres (4,900 to 8,200 ft) in elevation. The province’s western side is characterised by sharp, crested, interlinking peaks of steep slopes, isolated flatlands, plateaus and valleys. The eastern lands are mainly of rolling and gradually sloping foothills.
Large swaths of the province's lowlands are open grassland suitable for pasture, while the highlands have extensive areas of tropical rainforest. In higher elevations to the west, particularly in the mountains of Balbalan, lie some of the most intact pine forests of Luzon island. Rizal and Tabuk with their flatlands are the biggest rice producers. Next in rice production are the mountainous area, and of note are the rice terraces of Balbalan, Lubuagan, Pasil, Pinukpuk, Tinglayan, and Tanudan.
The province enjoys an average temperature ranging from 17 to 22 °C (63 to 72 °F) with Type 3 weather patterns. The dry season extends from November to April, while the rest of the year is considered the rainy season, the heaviest rains usually occurring from July to October.
The province is drained mainly by the Chico River, with its headwaters in the Mountain Province and emptying into the Cagayan River. The Chico River has several tributaries: Bunog River in Tinglayan in the south; the Tanudan and Biga Rivers in the east; Pasil River in the central area; and Poswoy, Dao-angan, Mabaca and Saltan Rivers in the west. Several small lakes can also be found in Kalinga. These water resources if to be tapped could provide abundant sources for power generation, fishing, irrigation and for domestic use, but would destroy rice terraces, villages, livelihoods, and complete indigenous cultures.
Kalinga is subdivided into one city and seven municipalities. Tabuk was proclaimed a component city in 2007, but in November 2008 the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that its cityhood was unconstitutional. However, Tabuk had its city status reinstated by the Supreme Court on December 22, 2009.
|Population census of Kalinga|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Based on the 2000 census survey, 64.4% of the population are Kalinga and Ilocanos are 24% of the province population. Other ethnic groups living in the province are the Kankana-ey 2.5%, Ibontoc 1.6%, Tagalog 1.3% and Applai 1%.
The primary language spoken is Kalinga, including its dialects of Balangao, Butbut, Limos, Lower Tanudan, Lubuagan, Mabaka, Madukayang, Southern Kalingan, and Upper Tanudan. Also spoken is Gaddang, as well as Ilocano, Tagalog, and English with varying degrees of proficiency.
There are many sub-tribes in the province. The strong sense of tribal membership and filial loyalty results in frequent tribal unrest and occasional outright war. Due to the mountainous terrain and warrior-culture of the people, the Kalinga were able to preserve their culture despite centuries of occupation in the lowlands by the Spaniards, Americans, and the Japanese. Unbeknownst to many, the last stand of President Emilio Aguinaldo in 1901 took place in Lubuagan, which he proclaimed the seat of government, and where the Aguinaldo Museum commemorates the event.
The Kalinga people are highlanders and the most extensive rice farmers of the Cordillera peoples, having been blessed with some of the most suitable land for both wet and dry rice farming. Like the Ifugao, the Kalinga are prolific terrace builders. The Kalinga are also skilled craftsmen, well-versed in basketry, loom weaving, metalsmithing, and pottery, the last centred in the lower Chico River Valley.
Mount Binuluan, a fumarolic volcano in Lubuagan
- "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities
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