The kanklės (pronounced [ˈkʌŋkles]) is a Lithuanian plucked string musical instrument (chordophone), of the zither family. The instrument is similar in construction and origin to the Latvian kokle, Russian gusli, Estonian kannel and Finnish kantele.
The body of the kanklės is constructed of one trapezoidal piece of hardwood, hollowed out to make a cavity. A thin sheet of softwood (usually spruce) is used to make a sounding board, which covers the body. Sound holes, which traditionally take the shape of a stylized flower or star, are cut into the sounding board, allowing sound to project outward.
At the narrowest side of the body a metal bar is attached, to which the strings made of wire or gut are anchored. The opposite ends of the strings are attached to a row of tuning pegs inserted into holes at the opposite side of the body.
It is usually rested on the player's lap and played with the fingers or a pick made of bone or quill.
Within Lithuania, there are three basic regional types of kanklės, although there are variations within each type and some overlap of areas. Each type has its own playing technique.
The simplest and most ancient form, most frequently having five strings, and having a rounded bottom like a boat.
Žemaitija and Northwestern Aukštaitija
Somewhat larger than those of Northeastern Aukštaitija, usually having between eight and twelve strings. They have a flat bottom, and in some cases, the shortest end is carved with the stylized figure of a bird's or fish's tail.
Suvalkija and Northwestern Žemaitija
Usually the most highly decorated type, and kanklės used in concert performance are most often based on this variety. The most prominent identifying feature is the addition of a carved spiral figure to the point of the instrument's body and sometimes, the rounding of the narrow end of the body. Typically these instruments have between nine and thirteen strings.
- Video of performance by Regimantas Zitkauskas[dead link] at TVfolk.net
- Lithuanian stringed instrument kankles[dead link]
- Anthology of Lithuanian Ethnoculture[dead link]
- Lithuanian Folk Instruments
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (June 2012)|
- Ancient Lithuanian Kanklės, Romualdas Apanavičius, Institute of Ethnomusic, Vilnius, Lithuania