Koroni

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Koroni
Κορώνη
Koroni.jpg
Location
Koroni is located in Greece
Koroni
Koroni
Coordinates 36°47′N 21°57′E / 36.783°N 21.950°E / 36.783; 21.950Coordinates: 36°47′N 21°57′E / 36.783°N 21.950°E / 36.783; 21.950
Government
Country: Greece
Administrative region: Peloponnese
Regional unit: Messenia
Municipality: Pylos-Nestoras
Population statistics (as of 2001)[1]
Municipal unit
 - Population: 5,067
 - Area: 105.163 km2 (41 sq mi)
 - Density: 48 /km2 (125 /sq mi)
Community
 - Population: 1,688
Other
Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3)
Elevation: 0 m ­(0 ft)
Postal code: 24x xx
Telephone: 272x0
Auto: XA
Website
www.korone.gr

Koroni or Corone (Greek: Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is a municipal unit.[2] Known as Corone by the Venetians and Ottomans, the town of Koroni (pop. 1,668) sits on the southwest peninsula of the Peloponnese on the Gulf of Messinia in southern Greece 45 minutes southwest of Kalamata. The town is nestled on a hill below an impressive Venetian castle and reaches to the edge of the gulf. The town was the seat of the former municipality of Koróni, which has a land area of 105.163 km² and a population of 5,067 (2001 census). The municipal unit's next largest towns are Charokopeió (pop. 743), Chrysokellariá (528), and Vasilítsi (488). It also includes the uninhabited offshore island of Venétiko.

History[edit]

Venetian map of Koroni (1686).
View of the castle

The town was founded in ancient times. The Greek geographer Pausanias in his book "Messiniaka" reports the original location of Koroni at today's Petalidi, a town a few kilometers north of Koroni. He also reports many temples of Greek gods and a copper statue of Zeus. Because of reorderings, in the centuries that followed the town of Koroni moved to its current location where the ancient town of Asini had once stood. In the 6th and 7th centuries AD, the Byzantines built a fortress there. It appears for the first time as a bishopric in the Notitiae Episcopatuum of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise, in which it appears as a suffragan of Patras.[3] Surviving seals give the names of some of its Greek bishops.[4] The Greek eparchy was suppressed in the 19th century as part of an ecclesiastical reorganization after Greece gained its independence.

Following the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, a Venetian fleet under Premarini and the son of Dandolo occupied it, and converted the port into a provisioning station "where all passing ships could receive a month's rations--a custom maintained, we are told, when the place became a regular Venetian colony."[5] During this period Corone became the seat of bishops of the Latin Church, one of whom, Angelo Correr, later became Pope Gregory XII.[6][7][8][9] No longer a residential bishopric, Corone is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[10]

The fortress and town were captured by the Ottoman troops of Sultan Bayezid II in 1500. Apart from a short period under Habsburg Empire rule in the Siege of Coron in 1532-1534, when the fortress was defended by a few noble families as Baffa, Trasci, Marchianò, Mazzuca and Stratigò,[11] On August 11, 1685 the Holy League captured Koroni; of the over 1,300 slaves captured, a fourth were given to the Maltese knights. [12]There was a short return to Venetian rule (1686–1715) after the Morean War, they remained under the control of the Ottoman Empire until becoming part of the modern Greek state in 1828 when it was liberated by the French General Nicolas Joseph Maison.

Rocket Launch Site[edit]

Near Koroni, there was between 1966 and 1989 a facility for launching sounding rockets. The first launches performed from Koroni were done on May 20, 1966 for investigation a total-annular solar eclipse. These rockets reached an altitude of 114 kilometers. From 1972 to 1989 several Russian meteorological rockets of M-100 type were launched. They reached altitudes up to 95 kilometers. In total 371 rockets were launched.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Facto Population of Greece Population and Housing Census of March 18th, 2001 (PDF 793 KB). National Statistical Service of Greece. 2003. 
  2. ^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (Greek)
  3. ^ Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 557, nº 535.
  4. ^ Gustave Léon Schlumberger, Sigillographie de l'empire byzantin, 1884, pp. 184-185.
  5. ^ William Miller, The Latins in the Levant (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1908), p. 39
  6. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 193-196 e Indice p. III
  7. ^ Raymond Janin, v. Corone, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XIII, Paris 1956, coll. 913-914
  8. ^ Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, p. 212; vol. 2, pp. XX-XXI, 138; vol. 3, p. 178; vol. 4, pp. 165–166; vol. 5, p. 173; vol. 6, p. 184; vol. 7, p. 164
  9. ^ Gaetano Moroni, v. Corona o Corone, in Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, vol. XVII, Venice 1842, pp. 169–170
  10. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 875
  11. ^ D. Baffa Trasci Amalfitani di Crucoli, I nobili albanesi coronei in Araldica Calabrese VI Ed. MIT Cosenza 2008
  12. ^ The Maltese Cross: A Strategic History of Malta, Dennis Angelo Castillo, page 90, 2006
  13. ^ Koroni at Encyclopedia Astronautica

External links[edit]