Lahontan cutthroat trout
|Lahontan cutthroat trout|
|O. clarki henshawi, stream form|
|Subspecies:||O. c. henshawi|
|Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi
Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) is the largest subspecies of cutthroat trout, and the state fish of Nevada. It is one of three subspecies of cutthroat trout that are listed as federally threatened.
Natural history 
The Lahontan cutthroat is native to the drainages of the Truckee River, Humboldt River, Carson River, Walker River, Quinn River and several smaller rivers in the Great Basin of North America. These were tributaries of ancient Lake Lahontan during the ice ages until the lake shrank to remnants such as Pyramid Lake and Walker Lake about 7,000 years ago, although Lake Tahoe—from which the Truckee flows to Pyramid Lake—is still a large mountain lake.
Lahontan cutthroats evolved into a large (up to 1 metre (39 in)) and moderately long-lived predator of chub, suckers, and other fish as long as 30 or 40 centimetres (16 in). The trout was able to remain a predator in the larger remnant lakes where prey fish continued to flourish, but upstream populations were forced to adapt to eating smaller fish and insects. Some experts consider O. c. henshawi in the upper Humboldt River and tributaries to be a separate subspecies (the "Humboldt cutthroat trout"), adapted to living in small streams rather than large lakes.
The record size cutthroat trout of any subspecies was a Lahontan caught in Pyramid Lake weighing 41 pounds (18.6 kg), although there is anecdotal and photographic evidence of even larger fish from this lake.
Human history 
The Lahontan cutthroats of Pyramid and Walker Lakes were of considerable importance to the Paiute tribe. These trout as well as Cui-ui—a sucker found only in Pyramid Lake—were dietary mainstays and were used by other tribes in the area.
When John C. Frémont and Kit Carson ascended the Truckee River on January 16, 1844, they called it the Salmon Trout River, after the huge Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) that ran up the river from Pyramid Lake to spawn.
American settlement in the Great Basin nearly extirpated these remarkable fish. During the 19th century and early 20th centuries, Lahontan cutthroats were caught in tremendous numbers and shipped to towns and mining camps throughout the West; estimates have ranged as high as 1,000,000 pounds (450,000 kg) annually between 1860 and 1920. A dam in Mason Valley blocked spawning runs from Walker Lake. By 1905 Derby Dam on the Truckee River below Reno interfered with Pyramid Lake's spawning runs. A poorly designed fish ladder washed away in 1907, then badly-timed water diversions to farms in the Fallon, Nevada area stranded spawning fish and desiccated eggs below the dam. By 1943 Pyramid Lake's population was extinct. Lake Tahoe's population was extinct by 1930 from competition and inbreeding with introduced rainbow trout (creating cutbows), predation by introduced lake trout, and diseases introduced along with these exotic species.
Upstream populations have been isolated and decimated by poorly-managed grazing and excessive water withdrawals for Irrigation, as well as by hybridization, competition and predation by non-native salmonids. This is important as although Lahontan cutthroat trout can inhabit either lakes or streams, they are obligatory stream spawners.
Pyramid Lake and Truckee River water quality 
Pyramid Lake, the second largest natural lake in the western U.S. prior to construction of the Derby Dam, which diverted water from the lake, has been the focus of several water quality investigations, the most detailed starting in the mid-1980s. Under direction of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, a comprehensive dynamic hydrology transport model was developed by Earth Metrics Inc.; the model's name was subsequently changed to DSSAM, and it was applied to analyze impacts of a variety of land use and wastewater management decisions throughout the 3,120-square-mile (8,100 km2) Truckee River Basin. These analyses allowed more competent decisions to be made regarding the watersheds as well as management of treated effluent discharged to the Truckee River.
Lahontan cutthroat trout currently occupy a small fraction of their historic range. The primary obstacle to their recovery is non-native salmonid predation by Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on fluvial cutthroat and Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)on lacustrine cutthroat. Also hybridization of cutthroat with non-native Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) continues to threaten recovery of the pure Lahontan cutthroat. Only Independence Lake has continuously harbored its historic native Lahontan cutthroat population, although precariously low spawner numbers there have recently increased along with five years of brook trout removal.
Pyramid and Walker Lakes have been re-stocked with fish captured in Summit Lake (Nevada) and Lake Heenan, and those populations are maintained by fish hatcheries. Unfortunately the Summit Lake strain does not live as long or grow as large as the original strain of fish. However in the 1970s fish believed to have been stocked almost a century ago from the Pyramid Lake strain were discovered in a small stream along the Pilot Peak area of western Utah border, and are a genetic match to the original strain. This Pilot Peak strain of LCT is now integral to the reintroduction and planting programs maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Preservation of highly complementary habitats is crucial for survival of the different age classes of cutthroat trout, with clean gravels needed for spawning, slow moving side channel habitats used by juvenile fish, and deeper pool habitats such as beaver ponds for larger adult fish.
Although Lahontan cutthroat trout (LCT) stand little chance of surviving for long in Lake Tahoe, the Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW) planted LCT instead of rainbow trout on the lake's Nevada shore in summer 2011. The goal is to enable anglers to catch Lake Tahoe's native trout for the first time since 1939. The California state record was caught in Lake Tahoe in 1911 by William Pomin, weighing in at an impressive 31 pounds, 8 ounces.
Because it tolerates water too alkaline for other trout, Lahontan cutthroats are stocked in alkaline lakes outside its native range, including Lake Lenore (alternately Lenore Lake) in central Washington and Lake Mann in Oregon's Alvord Desert east of Steens Mountain.
See also 
- "Lahontan cutthroat trout". U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nevada Office. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- Robert J. Behnke (1992). Native Trout of Western North America. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780913235799. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- William F. Sigler and John W. Sigler (1987). Fishes of the Great Basin. Reno, Nevada: University of Nevada Press. p. 111. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- John Charles Fremont (1847). Narrative of the exploring expedition to the Rocky mountains: in the year 1842, and to Oregon and north California in the years 1843-44. Hall & Dickson. p. 309. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- Nevada Fish and Wildlife Office (2008-09-09). 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Lahontan Cutthroat Trout 73 (175). Federal Register. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- C. Michael Hogan, Marc Papineau of Earth Metrics Inc. (1987). Development of a dynamic water quality simulation model for the Truckee River (Report). Washington D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency Technology Series.
- G. Gary Scoppettone, Peter H. Rissler, Sean P. Shea, William Somer (2012). "Effect of Brook Trout Removal from a Spawning Stream on an Adfluvial Population of Lahontan Cutthroat Trout". North American Journal of Fisheries Management 32 (3): 586–596. Retrieved 2012-10.
- Mike Caltagirone (2010-01-19). "Bringing Home the Lahontan Cutthroat Trout". Blood Knot Magazine. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- Seth M. White, Frank J. Rahel (2008). "Complementation of Habitats for Bonneville Cutthroat Trout in Watersheds Influenced by Beavers, Livestock, and Drought". Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137: 881–894. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- Bruce Ajari (2011-08-11). "Reintroduction of Lahontan cutthroat trout should benefit anglers". Tahoe Daily Tribune. Retrieved 2012-10-28.
- Lahontan cutthroat trout at U.S. Fish and Wildlife
- Lahontan cutthroat trout at California Department of Fish and Game
- Nate Schweber, "Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Make a Comeback", New York Times, Apri 24, 2013 (20- and 25-pound trout caught and released; review of recovery efforts)