Land sailing, also known as sand yachting or land yachting, is the act of moving across land in a three-wheeled vehicle powered by wind through the use of a sail. The term comes from analogy with (water) sailing. Historically, land sailing was used as a mode of transportation or recreation. Since the 1950s it has evolved primarily into a racing sport.
Vehicles used in sailing are known as sail wagons, sand yachts, or land yachts. They are typically three-wheeled vehicles that function much like a sailboat, except that they are operated from a sitting or lying position and steered by pedals or hand levers. Land sailing works best in windy, flat areas, and races often take place on beaches, air fields, and dry lake beds in desert regions. Modern land sailors, generally known as "pilots", can go three to four times faster than the wind speed. A gust of wind is considered more beneficial in a land sailing race than a favorable windshift. A similar sport, known as ice yachting, is practiced on frozen lakes and rivers. Another variation is the Whike, which combines land sailing with bicycling and can therefore also be used in everyday traffic because it does not fully depend on wind.
The earliest text describing the Chinese use of mounting masts and sails on large vehicles is the Book of the Golden Hall Master written by the Daoist scholar and crown prince Xiao Yi, who later became Emperor Yuan of Liang (r. 552–554 AD). He wrote that Gaocang Wushu invented a "wind-driven carriage" which was able to carry thirty people at once. There was another built in about 610 for the Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604–617), as described in the Continuation of the New Discourses on the Talk of the Times.
European travelers from the 16th century onwards mentioned sailing carriages with surprise. In 1585 (during the Chinese Ming Dynasty), Gonzales de Mendoza wrote that the Chinese had many coaches and wagons mounted with sails, and even depicted them in artwork of silk hanfu robes and on earthenware vessels. In the 1584 atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum written by the cartographer Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598), there are large Chinese carriages depicted with sails and masts. Likewise, there are the same Chinese vehicles with sails depicted in the Atlas of Gerardus Mercator (1512–1594), as well as the 1626 book Kingdome of China by John Speed. The English poet John Milton (1608–1674) popularized the Chinese sailing carriage in Europe with a poem written in 1665.
In the 1860s, “windwagons” were used to transport across the American great plains.
The precursor to the modern land yacht was invented in the autumn of the year 1600 by the Flemish scientist Simon Stevin in Flanders as a commission for Prince Maurice of Orange. It was used by Prince Maurice for entertaining his guests. In 1898, the Dumont brothers of De Panne, Belgium, developed a land yacht whose sails were based on contemporary Egyptian sailboats used on the Nile River. The first races were held on the beaches of Belgium and France in 1909. Land yachts were also used in the late 19th century and early 20th century to transport goods on dry lakes in the United States.
In 1967 a French Foreign Legion officer organized a land yacht race across the Sahara Desert. Teams from 7 countries assembled at Colomb-Béchar in Algeria and using French-designed and built machines for the most part, sailed 1,700 miles (2,700 km) through Algeria, Spanish Morocco and into the capital of Mauritania. Due to the harsh conditions, the idea of racing was abandoned, though at the time three young American boatbuilders, Larry Pardey, Richard Arthur and Warren Zeibarth (Captain, Pardey), were leading the race, with scores double those of any other team. The story made the cover of National Geographic in November 1967. A reinactment of this event took place three years later and was filmed by National Geographic.
Landsailing on Other Planets
In 2012, NASA scientist Geoffrey A. Landis proposed that a sail could be used for propulsion of a rover on Venus or other planets (NASA image here). According to Popular Mechanics, "an ambitious proposal from Geoffrey Landis at NASA's John Glenn Research Center is to develop a rover that works with Venus's topography and winds. Landis's landsailing rover, the Zephyr, has been discussed for more than a year, but broke into the news with a flurry of reports last month."
The world land speed record for a wind-powered vehicle was broken on 26 March 2009 by Richard Jenkins in his yacht Greenbird with a speed of 126.1 mph (202.9 km/h). Wind speeds were fluctuating between 30–50 mph (48–80 km/h) at that time.
There are a number of basic types, or "classes", of land yachts. Because of the very different nature of each class, they compete separately in races. The largest class of yachts are known as Class 2, which may have masts as large as 8 metres (26 ft). The massive sail area provides significant power, although the speed of Class 2 yachts can sometimes be limited by their large size. These are sailed mainly in continental Europe and not sailed at all in some countries such as the United Kingdom.
The Class 3 is probably the most popular yacht design, almost identical to the Class 2 in appearance, but significantly smaller. Class 3 yachts are generally made from fiberglass, sometimes in combination with other high-tech lightweight materials, such as carbon fibre, Kevlar, or various composites, with a wooden rear axle. They are capable of reaching speeds up to 70 miles per hour (113 km/h).
The Class 5 is much smaller than the 2 and 3, and is in a very different shape. The pilot still sails the yacht lying down, but unlike the 2 and 3, he lies in a seat that is suspended from or cantilevered off the chassis, rather than inside the body. The chassis is usually made of steel and aluminium, with a fibreglass or carbon–Kevlar seat. Class 5 yachts are capable of reaching speeds up to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h), and some have been faster, closer to 70 miles per hour (113 km/h).
While Class 2, 3, and 5 yachts must meet certain guidelines, the specifications are flexible to an extent.
The "Standart" Class is unique in that it is the only recognised international monotype sand yacht with all yachts identical. Similar to Class 5 in shape and function, they must follow a special design supplied by the French manufacturer Seagull. This class is widely popular because it means the outcome of a competition rests entirely with the pilot, as the yacht itself cannot provide an advantage or disadvantage.
"Miniyachts" are small land yachts which are aimed at the leisure market, however, any type of land yacht can be raced and the identical nature of these yachts make them ideal fun racers due to their similar size and sail area. This style of yacht uses a traditional style land yacht rig with a smaller chassis and body where the pilot is able to sit in a conventional way and control the sail with a simple main sheet. These are the smallest, cheapest and lightest yachts available and are tremendously safe and easy to sail with basic instruction.
The basic definition of a miniyacht is "Any assembled land or sand yacht that fits inside a continuous loop of rope 5.6 m long is a miniyacht". Some designs of mini yachts can be dismantled and carried in the trunk of a car. They can be sailed equally well by small children and large adults and have the added advantage of going on grass as well as sand or concrete. These yachts are very usable and they are a truly fun inexpensive class for all the family popular in Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand, UK and Ireland.
Class 7 yachts are built like skateboards with a sail, much like a land-borne windsurfing board. These are also called Speed Sail and are fully recognised by FISLY as part of sand yacht clubs, they are also sailed for fun and hobby.
Class 8 Land Yachts - also referred to as Parakarting, or kite buggying - differ from other classes in that the sail is replaced with a large traction kite, usually flown on 20–40 m quad lines. The buggies are also considerably smaller and more maneuverable. This relatively new class of the sport is still undergoing rapid development but has become popular in recent years due to its portability, relative low cost and flexibility. Kite buggying also uniquely offers the pilot the possibility of getting real air time as buggies are sometimes launched into the air by the traction kite. Class 8 activities are generally grouped under racing, using large kites and very large and heavy buggies to accelerate to over 70 mph (110 km/h), current record 133 km/h Arjen Vandertol(ref NABX 2010), freestyle where smaller, lighter machines perform freestyle tricks such as airs, spins, wheelies, reverse flying, etc., and endurance or cruising where distances of hundreds of kilometres are covered in trips lasting several days. Look under Transat des Sables and Gobi Kite Buggy Challenge. Also "Mad way south challenge over 2500 km in the western Sahara. 24 hour Distance Record holder Peter Foulkes (n.z.) 623 km
New Zealand designed Blokarts, UK designed X-sails are small and Spanish designs Rinox and WinDreamer fast and maneuverable and therefore able to be sailed in small urban areas. They can be packed into a case able to be carried in a car or as luggage on a plane. The hand steering allows disabled people to be able to use them and compete with able-bodied competitors. The current Blokart land speed record of 103.4 km/hr (64.4 mph) was set by Mark Walters at Red Lake, Arizona on 25 May 2012.
Other types of miniyacht that have foot steering are the Ludic, Potty and Skoot. At good venues, these miniyahts often sail informally together with kite buggies.
- Land yacht competitors are spread over all continents: from the vast beaches of Western Europe, Ireland and the UK, New Zealand and Brazil, dry-lake surfaces in the USA, Argentina, Australia and Africa to frozen lakes in Canada and Scandinavia (using skates instead of wheels).
- National landyacht associations are united in the international landyacht federation called FISLY. This organisation sets up the racing rules. Every two years, world championships are organised. Besides that, there are lots of local races and competitions every week and annual European and Pacific Rim championships.
- Racing yachts are divided in four classes by FISLY: Class 5 and Class Standart have a tubular steel or aluminium frame and mast with a glassfiber seats. The bigger Class 3 and Class 2 yachts have a lightweight glassfiber hull and wing-shaped mast and (mostly) a wooden rear axle.
- Racing yachts speed up to 120 km/h (the world speed record is 202.9 km/h (126.1 mph), set by Richard Jenkins in 2009... breaking the previous record of 188 km/h (116.7 mph) set in 2001 by Bob Schumacher, USA). Even at very low winds, racing yachts ride at up to three times the wind speed, reaching easily 70 km/h. Due to the lightweight and aerodynamic build, racing yachts boost to top speed in about 5 seconds. Turning markers are usually taken at full speed.
European and world championships
One of the largest international events in the sport are the European championships, in which competitors of all classes from all over Europe travel to a sand yachting venue for a week long competition. The Wirral Sand Yacht Club, on Hoylake beach, hosted the event in September 2007. Rada Tilly hosted the World Championship XI in February 2008, an event that was first developed in Argentina and in South America. . St Peter Ording was the venue for the 2009 European Championships. De Panne in Belgium will host the 2010 World Championships in Sept - October. Attendees included local politicians Esther McVey and Stephen Hesford, alongside the Mayor of Wirral, the Head of the International Governing body for Sandyachting, and at least some of the 150 competitors from Argentina, France, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Sweden Italy, Ireland, Chile, Denmark, USA, Australia and the UK. After devoting 10 years to the project, British engineer Richard Jenkins broke the land speed record for a wind-powered craft. Jenkins's vehicle, the Ecotricity Greenbird, clocked in at 126.1 mph on March 26, 2009. This was done just south of Las Vegas Nevada.
In the US, annual competitions are held by local clubs and by NALSA, the North American Landsailing Association. The largest regatta is regularly held the last week of March on the playa at the California-Nevada border near Primm, Nevada. The classes sailed in the US include several one-design classes, international class 5 (5 m² class in the US), and open classes solely based on the sail/wing area. The European yachts sail with the appropriate US open class according to their sail area.
Promoting international competition, there are periodic regattas including FISLY and other landsailing nations, mostly on the Pacific Rim. The host and venue of this regatta rotates, and the 2009 event will be hosted by NALSA at the March regatta.
A history of sailing in the US can be found at Nalsa.org.
Blokart racing is a new but fast growing sport administered by the International Blokart Racing Association (IBRA) who sanction events and set the international racing rules. Blokart World Championships have been held biennially since the inaugural event at the home of Blokart in Papamoa, NZ in 2008. The 2010 championships was held in Ostend, Belgium. The 2012 event was organized and hosted by the North American Blokart Sailing Association nabsa.org on the dry lake bed at Ivanpah, California with over 150 Blokarts in attendance. The European Championships are to be held at Weston Super Mare in September 2013 with over 100 Blokarts anticipated to be attending. Blokart racing is held on purpose built tracks, airport runways, parking areas as well as beaches and dry lake beds. Blokart race events are held around the world, with major events such as New Zealand Open, European Open, British Open, Australian Open, and the North American Open held annually.
Blokarts are raced in two classes – production and performance, and in various weight divisions. The production class is based on the basic blokart design. In the performance class additional parts from the manufacturer are allowed such as carbon fibre mast sections and an aerodynamic shell, adjustable downhaul and modification of the sail battens to alter the shape of the sail. Blokarts have four standard sail sizes, 2.0m, 3.0m, 4.0m and 5.5m, with sail size choice being dependent on wind strength and weight of the sailor, with heavier sailors requiring larger sails, and smaller sails being more efficient in stronger winds.
- Greatstone Beach, Romney Marsh, Kent,UK
- St. Andrews and thousands of other beaches in Scotland
- Hoylake, Wirral Peninsula UK
- Newborough, Anglesey, Wales, UK
- http://www.landyachting.co.uk Greatstone beach, New Romney, Kent,UK
- Many beaches in England,Ireland, Belgium, France,Spain and along the east side of the North Sea. Saint Peter Ording beach on the North Sea coast of Germany has miles of wide flat beaches where land sailing is very popular.
- Beaches in New Zealand, with 90 Mile Beach, Auckland’s west coast beaches, Waikanae, New Brighton, Rabbit Island, and Oreti, being popular.
- Blokart Heaven – a purpose built track in Papamoa, New Zealand.
- Salt pans such as Lake Lefroy (near Kambalda), and some beaches in Australia. The Australian Blokart Open was held in 2009 on the beach at Yeppoon, Queensland.
- Beaches in Cádiz, Spain
- Beaches in Argentina
- Pampa del leoncito Argentina
- Punta Banda, [Ensenada], Baja California, Mexico—Five mile sand beach
- Salinas El Convento Chile
- Beaches and airfields in Lithuania
- Wijk aan Zee in the Netherlands
- Vortex Wind Karting – a purpose built track outside of sunny Nelson, New Zealand.
In popular culture
- Land sailing is featured in Clive Cussler's Dirk Pitt novel, Sahara, and also in its film adaptation.
- Blokarting featured in The Amazing Race 13, in episode 4.
- Sand sailing is featured as a means of desert transportation in Avatar: The Last Airbender, in episodes 30 and 31.
- A landsailing rover on the planet Venus was selected by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts program as a technology study 
- Land sailing is featured in book three, Odalisque, of Neal Stephenson's novel Quicksilver, the first part of Stephenson's Baroque Cycle.
- In The Dreamstone, The Urpneys used a land yacht twice, in 'Trouble with the Miners' and 'The Jolly Bird.'
- The British reality-television competition series Scrapheap Challenge featured land yachts in season 2, episode 4. One team created a dual-sail yacht, but failed to win.
- The American reality-television competition series Junkyard Wars featured land yachts in season 7, episode 3 "Sand Yacht". Two teams, each led by an expert land yachtsman, constructed small yachts from parts available in a junkyard. The team that won used an aluminium sail, supposedly the first time a metal sail was used for a land yacht.
- Temple, 195.
- Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 274-276.
- Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 276.
- NASA, Windsurfing on a Wicked World. See NASA image.
- Darren Orf, "How Much Do We Really Know About Venus?" Popular Mechanics, September 18, 2013 4:32 PM
- BBC News - March 2009 - Wind-powered car breaks record
- [email@example.com Borroz, Tony] (2009-03-27). "Freaky Speeder Rides the Wind to World Record". Autotopia. Wired. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Wunderground weather history near Nipton, CA
- BBC News - September 2008 - Wind power speed record bid fails
- wired.com Freaky Speeder Rides the Wind to World Record
- "Sand yacht championships to start". BBC News. 16 September 2007. Retrieved 23 December 2007.
- "XI Campeonato Mundial de Carrovelismo 2008 en Rada Tilly -Chubut (Patagonia Argentina )".
- "Official website of the world championships 2010".
- "Wirral Sand Yacht Club". Retrieved 2007-12-30.
- Starrs, Paul F.; Peter Goin (September 2005). Black Rock. University of Nevada Press. pp. 85,234. ISBN 0-87417-591-7.
- http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/home/feature_windsurfing.html (accessed 10 July 2013)
- Keith Wagstaff, Time Magazine Techland blog, "What’s Next for NASA? 10 Wild Newly Funded Projects" August 14, 2012 (accessed 1 September 2012)
Needham, Joseph (1965). Science and Civilisation in China. Vol 4 part 2 Mechanical Engineering.
Mini Class Land Yacht plans and construction notes.... http://www.seabreeze.com.au/forums/Land-Yacht-Sailing/Construction/Build-a-Landyacht-Lake-Lefroy-Mini-Yacht/
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Land sailing.|
-  Kent Land Yacht Center (A good start point for those looking to try land yachting)
- FISLY Federation Internationale Sand and Land Yachting (International Governing Body)
- Kent Land Yacht Club
- The BLSA: The British Land Speedsail Association (UK national governing body for Blokart sailing and Land Speedsailing)
- . North American Blokart Sailing Association