Leonhard Seppala (September 14, 1877 – January 28, 1967) was a Norwegian-born American Sled dog musher who played a pivotal role in the 1925 serum run to Nome and participated in the 1932 Winter Olympics. Seppala introduced the American public to the work dogs used by Native Siberians at the time; the breed came to be known as the "Siberian Husky" in the English-speaking world. Seppala is the namesake of the Leonhard Seppala Humanitarian Award, which honors excellence in sled dog care.
Leonhard Seppala was born in the village of Skibotn in Storfjord municipality, Troms county, Norway. He was the oldest-born child of father Isak Isaksson Seppälä (of Swedish descent) and Anne Henriksdatter (of Norwegian Kven descent). When Seppala was two years old, his family moved within Troms county to nearby Skjervøy municipality on the island of Skjervøya. While in Skjervøy, his father worked as a blacksmith and fisherman, building up a relatively large estate. Seppala initially followed in his father's footsteps as both a blacksmith and a fisherman. However, he emigrated to Alaska during the Nome gold rush of the 1900s. His friend Jafet Lindeberg had returned from Alaska and convinced Seppala to come work for his mining company in Nome.
During his first winter in Alaska, Seppala became a dogsled driver for Lindeberg's company. He enjoyed the task from first run, which he recalled clearly for the rest of his life. He expressed pleasure in the rhythmic patter of the dogs' feet and the feeling of the sled gliding along the snow. While most drivers considered 30 miles (48 km) a long run, Seppala traveled between 50 miles (80 km) and 100 miles (160 km) most days. This also meant he worked as long as 12 hours a day. He kept his dogs in form during the summer by having them pull a cart on wheels instead of a sled. It was unusual then to keep sled dogs working when the snow thawed, or to spend as much time with them as he did.
In 1913, Seppala inherited his first team of sled dogs by chance. Lindeberg, his friend and supervisor at Pioneer Mining Company, had brought the puppies from Siberia as a gift for the explorer Roald Amundsen, whom he hoped would use them for his upcoming expedition to the North Pole. Seppala was assigned to train the dogs. "I literally fell in love with them from the start", he recalled; "I could hardly wait for sledding snow to start their training". When Amundsen cancelled his trip a few weeks after the puppies arrived in Nome, Lindeberg gave them to Seppala.
Seppala made the decision to compete in his first race, the 1914 All Alaska Sweepstakes, at the last minute. Neither he nor his canine freight leader, Suggen, knew the dangerous trail. Therefore, when a blizzard suddenly descended on the area during the race, Seppala realized his young dogs had lost the trail and they were all at great risk of death due to the nearby drop-off to the Bering Sea. Indeed, when the whiteout conditions suddenly lifted, Seppala found he and his team were at the bottom of a hill, racing toward the cliffs along the sea. Thankfully, he succeeded in making an emergency stop 20 feet from the drop-off, saving all their lives. However, many of his dogs' paw pads were shredded and claws broken by the ice-crusted snow while they clawed their way back to the top of the hill. A few also suffered frostbite. Seppala felt he had abused the dogs' loyalty by putting them in danger of death and injury, and withdrew from the race in shame. He would nurse them back to health for most the remainder of that year; they would not be ready to train again until the fall.
Seppala's racing career took off the following year, at the 1915 All Alaska Sweepstakes. After a close competition between him and experienced musher Scotty Allan, Sappala overcame him once and for all on the fourth day of the race. He finished two hours ahead of Allan, winning the Sweepstakes. Photo: Winners of the Eighth All Alaska Sweepstakes from Alaska's Digital Archives He went on to win the race the following two years, as well, at which point the All Alaska Sweepstakes was suspended until 1983.
Role in the "Serum Run" of 1925
A diphtheria outbreak struck Seppala's town of Nome, Alaska in the winter of 1925. Previously unexposed children as well as adults were at risk of dying from the infection. Seppala's only child—an eight-year-old daughter named Sigrid—was also at risk (Seppala himself was 47 years old at the time of the outbreak). The only treatment available in 1925 was diphtheria antitoxin serum. However, the town's supply was not only insufficient but also of presumably low efficacy, having recently expired. The only practical way to deliver more serum to Nome in the middle of the coldest winter in 20 years was by dog sled. A relay of respected mushers was organized to expedite the delivery, and Seppala (with lead dog Togo) was chosen for one the most forbidding sections of the trail.
Seppala's section of trail featured a dangerous shortcut across Norton Sound, which could save the serum a day of travel. It was decided that he was the most qualified of the relay mushers to attempt this shortcut. The ice on Norton Sound was in constant motion due to currents from the sea and the unimpeded wind. It could range from rough hills of smashed-together ice, to slippery “glare ice” polished by the wind, which made it difficult for the dogs to get a foothold in order to tug the sled. Small cracks in the ice could also suddenly widen, and driver and team would be plunged into the freezing water. If the wind blew from the east, it could reach speeds as high as 70 mph (110 km/h), flipping over sleds, pushing the dogs off-course, and dropping the windchill as low as −100 °F (−73 °C). A sustained east wind also pushed the ice out to sea, and a team suddenly caught on a drifting floe would find itself stranded on open water. Seppala had been forced to take the shortcut across the Sound several times in his career; a less-experienced musher was likelier to lose not only his life and the lives of his dogs, but also the human lives that might have been saved by the serum. Seppala would cross the sound twice in the race to deliver the serum.
As Seppala's section of trail started 270 miles (430 km) away, in Nulato, he set out from Nome on January 28—several days before he was due to meet the relay. He crossed Norton Sound without incident. Meanwhile, the number of diphtheria cases in Nome continued to climb. To hasten delivery of the serum, additional mushers were added to the relay. However, it was too late to inform Seppala that he would be meeting the relay closer to Nome than had originally been planned. Thus, after 3 days and 170 miles (270 km), he stumbled onto another relay musher, Henry Ivanoff—but did not realize it. Seppala saw the musher stopped on the trail and having trouble with his dogs, but did not intend to stop and be delayed. Thus, Ivanoff had to run after Seppala as he raced past, shouting, “The serum! The serum! I have it here!”.
When the serum passed to Seppala, night was falling and a powerful low-pressure system was starting to move onto the trail from the Gulf of Alaska. Seppala had to decide whether to risk Norton Sound in high winds in the dark, when he could not see or hear potential warning signs from the ice. However, as going around the ice meant slowing the delivery of the serum by a full day, he chose to go across. While he raced to the roadhouse at Isaac's Point on the opposite shore, gale-force winds dropped the windchill to an estimated −85 °F (−65 °C). When he arrived there at 8 pm, his dogs were exhausted; they had run 84 miles (135 km) that day, much of it against the wind and in brutal cold. However, they could only afford a short rest, and would be setting out again at 2 am.
The next day, the gale had progressed into a severe blizzard, with blinding snow and winds of at least 65 mph (105 km/h). Seppala continued the trail across Norton Sound. This meant avoiding rocky cliffs along the shore, but it also exposed him and his team to the dangers of the Sound. Conditions on the ice were perilous, with sudden soft spots in the ice underfoot, or outright open water only a few feet away. Only a few hours after they had crossed it, the ice had broken up altogether and drifted out to sea.
With Norton Sound behind them, Seppala and his team now faced the final challenge of the trail—climbing an 8 miles (13 km) ridge formation that led to the summit of Little McKinley. The trail here was exposed and the steep grade grueling for the dogs, who were sleep-deprived and had already raced 260 miles (420 km) over the previous 4.5 days. However, at 3 P.M. that day, Seppala and his team arrived at Golovin and handed off the serum to the next musher. The serum was now only 78 miles (126 km) from Nome. Indeed, it would arrive there the next day, Monday, February 2, at approximately 5:30 A.M., and was thawed and ready for use by 11 am.
After the Serum Run
After the Serum Run, Seppala and some 40 of his dogs toured the "lower 48" with an Eskimo handler. His tour ended in January 1927 with the dogsled race at Poland Spring, Maine, where he accepted the challenge to race against Arthur Walden, founder of the New England Sled Dog Club and owner of the famous lead dog "Chinook." Despite a series of amusing and time-consuming mishaps on the trail, Seppala won the race against the bigger, slower dogs driven by Walden and his followers. The enthusiasm for sled dog racing in New England together with the Serum Run publicity and the victory over Walden made it possible for Seppala and partner Elizabeth Ricker to establish a Siberian kennel at Poland Spring, Maine. This was the start of the spread of the Siberian Husky breed in the United States and Canada. 
In 1928, Seppala moved his permanent home to near Fairbanks, Alaska. In 1931 the Seppala–Ricker partnership ended. Sled dog racing was a demonstration event at the Lake Placid Winter Olympic Games in 1932, where Seppala earned a silver in the event. In 1946, he and his wife Constance moved to Seattle, Washington. In 1961 Seppala revisited Fairbanks and other places in Alaska at the invitation of American journalist Lowell Thomas, enjoying a warm reception from the Alaskan people. He and his wife lived in Seattle until his death at the age of ninety. His wife Constance died a few years later aged eighty-five. Both are buried in Nome, Alaska.
Today, Seppala is considered the father of the Siberian Husky breed, which was accepted by the American Kennel Club as a registered breed in 1930. A street in Nome named Seppala Drive connects the town to its airport. Leonhard Seppolas vei in Tromsø was also named for him. Alaska Airlines has established the Leonhard Seppala Humanitarian Award. In June 1999, a memorial was erected to him in Skibotn.
- Salisbury, Gay Salisbury & Laney (2003). The cruelest miles : the heroic story of dogs and men in a race against an epidemic. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0393019624.
- Alaska Airlines (2010-03-03). "Alaska Airlines To Serve As Iditarod's Official Airline Sponsor". Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Leonhard Seppala (Store norske leksikon)
- Leonhard Seppala (Balto's True Story)
- Leonhard Seppala, All-Time Great of Alaskan Dog Drivers (Seppala Kennels Home)
- Salisbury, Gay Salisbury & Laney (2003). The cruelest miles : the heroic story of dogs and men in a race against an epidemic. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. pp. 72–75. ISBN 0393019624.
- Nome Kennel Club (2008). "2008 All Alaska Sweepstakes Media Guide". Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- The Last Great Race on Earth (Iditarod Trail Committee, Inc.)
- Biographical sketch (International Seppala Association)
- Elizabeth Miller Ricker (Introduction to Seppalas)
- Alaska Airlines Continues Long-Standing Support Of Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race (Alaska Airlines)
- Beyer, Rick, The Greatest Stories Never Told (Harper, 2003) ISBN 0-06-001401-6
- Salisbury, Gay and Laney The Cruelest Miles: The Heroic Story of Dogs And Men in a Race Against an Epidemic (W. W. Norton & Company. 2003) ISBN 0-393-01962-4
- Ricker, Elizabeth Miller Seppala: Alaskan Dog Driver (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. 1930)