The site includes some earthwork enclosures of the late Middle Kingdom or Second Intermediate Period, containing a temple and palace of Ramesses II. There are also cemeteries from the Middle Kingdom and later.
In the reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor (180–145 BC) a temple, modelled after that of Jerusalem, was founded by the exiled Jewish priest Onias IV. The Hebrew colony, which was attracted by the establishment of their national worship at Leontopolis, and which was increased by the refugees from the oppressions of the Seleucid kings in Palestine, flourished there for more than three centuries afterwards. After the outbreak of the Jewish War, the Leontopolite temple was closed in the first century CE, amid the general backlash against Judaism.
- Joseph. Ant. Jud. xiii. 3. § 3; Hieronym. in Daniel. ch. xi.
- Joseph. B. Jud. vii. 10. § 4
- Manfred Bietak: Tell el-Yahudiya, in: Kathryn A. Bard (Hg.): Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, London/New York 1999, 791–792.
- John S. Holladay Jr.: Yahudiyya, Tell el-, in: D. B. Redford (Hg.): The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt III, Oxford 2001, 527–529.
- Edouard Naville: The mound of the Jew and the city of Onias, London 1890.
- Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, (ISBN 0-691-03169-X), p. 74.
- A.-P. Zivie: Tell el-Jahudija, in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie VI, 331–335.