List of Soviet and Russian submarine classes

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Submarines in the Soviet Navy were developed by numbered "projects," which were sometimes but not always given names. During the Cold War, NATO nations referred to these classes by NATO reporting names, based on intelligence data, which did not always correspond perfectly with the projects. See:

The NATO reporting names were based on the British (and later American) habit of naming submarines with a letter of the alphabet indicating the class, followed by a serial number of that class. The names are the radiotelephonic alphabet call sign of a letter of the alphabet. For security purposes, the "pennant numbers" of Soviet submarines were not sequential, any more than those of Soviet surface vessels were.

Most Russian (and Soviet) submarines had no "personal" name, but were only known by a number, prefixed by letters identifying the boat's type at a higher level than her class. Those letters included:

  • К (K) — крейсерская (kreyserskaya, "cruiser")
  • ТК (TK) — тяжелая крейсерская (tyazholaya kreyserskaya, "heavy cruiser")
  • Б (B) — большая (bolshaya, "large")
  • С (S) — средняя (srednyaya, "medium")
  • М (M) — малая (malaya, "small")

Any of those prefixes could have С (S) added to the end, standing for специальная (spetsialnaya) and meaning "designed for special missions":

  • New weapon, engines and armanent testing,
  • Submarines for long-range radio communications,
  • Target submarines for anti-submarine training,
  • Rescue service submarines,
  • Covert operations.

Diesel-electric[edit]

Russo-Japanese War[edit]

World War I Era[edit]

World War II Era[edit]

Project Series Image Built Assignment
Dekabrist class submarine Series I Shadowgraph Dekabrist class I series submarine mod.svg 6 large positional submarine
Leninets class submarine Series II, IX, XIII, XIII-1938 L-4 Garibaldiec 2.JPG 25 Mine layers
Shchuka class submarine Series III, V, V-bis, V-bis-2, X, X-1938 Shadowgraph Schuka class III series submarine 01.svg 86 Medium-sized patrol submarines.
Pravda class submarine Serie IV Shadowgraph Pravda class IV series submarine mod.svg 3 Squadron submarines.
Malyutka class submarine Series VI, VI-bis, XII, XV Shadowgraph Malyutka class VI series submarine.svg
Shadowgraph Malyutka class VI-bis series submarine.svg
Shadowgraph Malyutka class XII series submarine.svg
Shadowgraph Malyutka class XV series submarine.svg
110 Small submarines for coastal patrols.
Soviet S class submarine Series IX,IX-bis Shadowgraph S-56 submarine.svg 41 Medium submarines, built using German project (early version of Type IX).
K class submarine (Soviet) Serie XIV Shadowgraph Kreiserskaya class submarine.svg 11 Cruiser submarines with combined arms.

Post War era[edit]

Attack submarines[edit]

Project NATO reporting name Silhouette/Image Built Assignment
611, AB611 Zulu class Zulu class SS.svg 26 Large oceanic submarines
613 Whiskey class Whiskey class SS.svg 215 Medium multi-purpose submarines
615 Quebec class Quebec class SS.svg 30 Small submarines with full-diesel propulsion
633 Romeo class Romeo class SS.svg 20 Medium submarines
641 Foxtrot class Foxtrot class SS.svg 75 Large oceanic submarines
641Б Cом (Som, catfish) Tango class Tango class SS.svg 18 Large oceanic submarines
690 Кефаль (Kefal, mullet) Bravo class Target submarine for torpedo exercises
877, 877Э, 877ЭКМ, 877В, 877ЛПМБ, 877ЭК Paltus (turbot) Kilo class Kilo class SS.svg 24 Large submarines
636, 636М (Varshavyanka) Improved Kilo class Improved Kilo class SS.svg 31 Large submarines
677 Лада (Lada, harmony) Lada class S.Peterburg.svg 1 Large submarines
1650 Амур (the Amur River) Amur 1650.jpg 0 Modification of Lada class for export
865 Пиранья (Piran'ya, piranha) Losos class (Salmon) 2 Midget submarines

Guided missile submarines[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
P613 Whiskey Single Cylinder
644 Whiskey Twin Cylinder
665 Whiskey Long Bin
651 Juliett

Ballistic missile submarines[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
629, 609, 601, 605, 619; in service: 1958–1990 Golf

Auxiliary submarines[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
940 Ленок (Lenok, salmon) India
1710 Макрель (Makrel', mackerel) Beluga
1840 Lima
See also "Project 20120" below.

Nuclear-powered[edit]

Attack submarines[edit]

First generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
627 Кит, 645 Кит-ЖМТ (Kit, whale) November

Second generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
671, 671B, 671K, 671R Ёрш (Yorsh, ruffe) Victor I
671RT Victor II
671RTM Щука (Shchuka, pike) Victor III

Third generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
705, 705K Лира (Lira, the constellation) Alfa
945 Барракуда (Barrakuda, barracuda) Sierra I
945A Кондор (Kondor, condor) Sierra II
685 Плавник (Plavnik, fin) Mike

Fourth generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
971 Shchuka-B (pike) Akula

Guided missile submarines[edit]

First generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
659 Echo I
675 Echo II

Second generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
661 Анчар (Anchar, upas) Papa
667AT Груша (Grusha, pear) Yankee Notch
667M Андромеда (Andromeda, the constellation) Yankee Sidecar
670 Скат (Skat, ray) Charlie I
670M Скат-М (Skat-M, ray) Charlie II
06704 Чайка-Б (Chaika-B, seagull) Charlie

Third generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
949 Гранит (Granit, granite) Oscar I
949A Антей (Antey, Antaeus) Oscar II

Fourth generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
885 Ясень (Yasen, ash) Severodvinsk

Ballistic missile submarines[edit]

First generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
658, 701 Hotel

Second generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
667A Навага, 667AУ Налим (Navaga; Nalim, burbot) Yankee I
667AM Навага-М (Navaga-M) Yankee II
Delta class, comprising:
667Б Мурена (Murena, eel) Delta I
667БД Мурена-М (Murena-M, eel) Delta II
667БДР Кальмар (Kal'mar, squid) Delta III
667БДРМ Дельфин (Del'fin, dolphin) Delta IV

Third generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
941 Акула; (Akula, shark) Typhoon

Fourth generation[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
955 Борей (Borei);in production Borei

Auxiliary submarines[edit]

Project NATO reporting name
1910 Кашалот (Kashalot, cachalot) Uniform
977.4 Аксон (Akson) Yankee Pod
978 Yankee Stretch
20120 (Kalitika or "Sargan-mod"?); in development? Unconfirmed.[3]

Footnotes[edit]

  • Showell, Jak M. U-Boat Century, German Submarine Warfare 1906-2006. Chatham Publishing, Great Britain (2006). ISBN 1861-7624—10.
  1. ^ Showell, p. 22, 23, 29
  2. ^ Showell, p. 29
  3. ^ It is not resolved whether this is a diesel-electric or a nuclear-powered vessel. See Kommersant, 2007-SEP-12: Submarine: Military Secret Shows Up on the Internet. Retrieved 2007-SEP-12.

External links[edit]

See also[edit]