List of refractive indices

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Many materials have a well-characterized refractive index, but these indices depend strongly upon the frequency of light. Standard refractive index measurements are taken at yellow doublet sodium D line, with a wavelength of 589 nanometers.

There are also weaker dependencies on temperature, pressure/stress, et cetera, as well on precise material compositions (presence of dopants etc.); for many materials and typical conditions, however, these variations are at the percent level or less. Thus, it is especially important to cite the source for an index measurement if precision is required.

In general, an index of refraction is a complex number with both a real and imaginary part, where the latter indicates the strength of absorption loss at a particular wavelength—thus, the imaginary part is sometimes called the extinction coefficient k. Such losses become particularly significant, for example, in metals at short (e.g. visible) wavelengths, and must be included in any description of the refractive index.

Refraction, critical angle and total internal reflection of light at the interface between two media.

List[edit]

Some representative refractive indices
Material λ (nm) n Ref.
Vacuum 1 (by definition)
Air at STP 1.000277
Gases at 0 °C and 1 atm
Air 589.29 1.000293 [1]
Carbon dioxide 589.29 1.00045 [2]

[3] [4]

Helium 589.29 1.000036 [1]
Hydrogen 589.29 1.000132 [1]
Liquids at 20 °C
Arsenic trisulfide and sulfur in methylene iodide 1.9 [5]
Benzene 589.29 1.501 [1]
Carbon disulfide 589.29 1.628 [1]
Carbon tetrachloride 589.29 1.461 [1]
Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) 589.29 1.361 [1]
Silicone oil 1.336-1.582 [6]
Water 589.29 1.3330 [1]
10% Glucose solution in water 589.29 1.3477 [7]
20% Glucose solution in water 589.29 1.3635 [7]
60% Glucose solution in water 589.29 1.4394 [7]
Solids at room temperature
Titanium dioxide (Rutile phase ) 589.29 2.496 [8]
Diamond 589.29 2.419 [1]
Strontium titanate 589.29 2.41 [9]
Amber 589.29 1.55 [1]
Fused silica (also called Fused Quartz) 589.29 1.458 [1] [10]
Sodium chloride 589.29 1.544 [11]
Other materials
Liquid helium 1.025
Water ice 1.31
Cornea (human) 1.373/1.380/1.401 [12]
Lens (human) 1.386 - 1.406
Acetone 1.36
Ethanol 1.36
Glycerol 1.4729
Bromine 1.661
Teflon AF 1.315 [13] [14]
Teflon 1.35 - 1.38 [15]
Cytop 1.34 [16]
Sylgard 184 (Polydimethylsiloxane) 1.4118 [17]
PLA 1.46 [18]
Acrylic glass 1.490 - 1.492
Polycarbonate 1.584 - 1.586
PMMA 1.4893 - 1.4899
PETg 1.57
PET 1.5750
Crown glass (pure) 1.50 - 1.54
Flint glass (pure) 1.60 - 1.62
Crown glass (impure) 1.485 - 1.755
Flint glass (impure) 1.523 - 1.925
Pyrex (a borosilicate glass) 1.470 [19]
Cryolite 1.338
Rock salt 1.516
Sapphire 1.762–1.778
Sugar Solution, 25% 1.3723 [20]
Sugar Solution, 50% 1.4200 [20]
Sugar Solution, 75% 1.4774 [20]
Cubic zirconia 2.15 - 2.18 [21]
Potassium Niobate (KNbO3) 2.28
Silicon carbide 2.65 - 2.69
Cinnabar (Mercury sulfide) 3.02
Gallium(III) phosphide 3.5
Gallium(III) arsenide 3.927
Zinc Oxide 390 2.4
Germanium 3000 - 16000 4.05 - 4.01 [22]
Silicon 1200 - 8500 3.48 - 3.42 [23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Alfred Zajac; Hecht, Eugene; Cummings, Eugene (18 March 2003). Optics, Fourth Edition. Pearson Higher Education. ISBN 978-0-321-18878-6. 
  2. ^ Introduction to Geometrical and Physical Optics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, INC. 1953. 
  3. ^ Hodgman; Selby, Weast (1957). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Chemical Rubber Publishing Co. 
  4. ^ Pedrotti; Pedrotti, Pedrotti (2007). Introduction to Optics, Third Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 221. ISBN 0-13-149933-5. 
  5. ^ Meyrowitz, R, A compilation and classification of immersion media of high index of refraction, American Mineralogist 40: 398 (1955)
  6. ^ Silicone Fluids: Stable and Inert Material
  7. ^ a b c David R. Lide (2001). CRC handbook of physics and chemistry. The Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland, OH. ISBN 0-8493-0482-2. 
  8. ^ RefractiveIndex.INFO - Refractive index and related constants
  9. ^ Frye, Asa (2003). "Optical properties and electronic structure of oxidized and reduced single-crystal strontium titanate". Zeitschrift für Metallkunde. doi:10.3139/146.030226. Retrieved July 11th, 2014. 
  10. ^ Tan, G (2005). "Optical properties and London dispersion interaction of amorphous and crystalline {SiO2} determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.". Physical Review B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.72.205117. Retrieved July 11th, 2014. 
  11. ^ Raymond A. Serway; Faughn, Jerry S. (2003). College Physics, 6th Edition. Brooks/Cole. p. 692. ISBN 978-0-03-035114-3. 
  12. ^ Patel S; Marshall J, Fitzke FW 3rd. (Mar–Apr 1995). "Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma". J Refract Surg. 11 (2): 100–105. PMID 7634138. 
  13. ^ "Teflon AF". Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  14. ^ Yang, Min K. (July 2008). "Optical properties of Teflon® {AF} amorphous fluoropolymers.". Journal of Micro/Nano Lithogrpahy. doi:10.1117/1.2965541. Retrieved July 11th, 2014. 
  15. ^ French, Roger H. (2009). "Optical properties of materials for concentrator photovoltaic systems". IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. doi:10.1109/PVSC.2009.5411657. Retrieved July 11th, 2014. 
  16. ^ "Cytop". Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  17. ^ "184 Silicone Elastomer" (PDF) (Product Information). Dow Corning. Retrieved 2012-12-11. 
  18. ^ "Poly(Lactic Acid): Synthesis, Structures, Properties, Processing, and Applications; Chapter 8: Optical Properties". Retrieved 2012-10-25. 
  19. ^ University of Liverpool. "Absolute Refractive Index". Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  20. ^ a b c "Manual for Sugar solution Prism". Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  21. ^ French, Roger H. (1994). "Experimental and theoretical determination of the electronic structure and optical properties of three phases of {ZrO2}". Physical Review B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.49.5133. Retrieved July 11th, 2014. 
  22. ^ http://www.pmoptics.com/germanium.html
  23. ^ http://www.pmoptics.com/silicon.html

External links[edit]