Lists of tropical cyclone names

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Not to be confused with List of named tropical cyclones.

Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are given names according to policy (see Tropical cyclone naming). The following are lists from which these tropical and subtropical cyclone names are derived.

North Atlantic[edit]

Within the North Atlantic ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami) when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 65 km/h, (40 mph). The World Meteorological Organisation maintains six alphabetical lists of names which alternate between masculine and feminine and are used on a six-year cycle. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, etc.). Greek-letter names, unlike the names in the regular lists, cannot be retired. If a storm ever reached the magnitude that might otherwise have led to retirement, the storm would be listed with the retired names with a footnote indicating that the Greek letter would still be available for future storms.[1][2][3] The next name to be used within the basin is Dolly.

Image of Hurricane Wilma affecting the Yucatan in October 2005.
2014 Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gonzalo Hanna Isaias Josephine Kyle
Laura Marco Nana Omar Paulette Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred
2015 Ana Bill Claudette Danny Erika Fred Grace Henri Ida Joaquin Kate
Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda
2016 Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Ian Julia Karl
Lisa Matthew Nicole Otto Paula Richard Shary Tobias Virginie Walter
2017 Arlene Bret Cindy Don Emily Franklin Gert Harvey Irma Jose Katia
Lee Maria Nate Ophelia Philippe Rina Sean Tammy Vince Whitney
2018 Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Florence Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk
Leslie Michael Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sara Tony Valerie William
2019 Andrea Barry Chantal Dorian Erin Fernand Gabrielle Humberto Imelda Jerry Karen
Lorenzo Melissa Nestor Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[1][2]

Eastern Pacific Ocean[edit]

Hurricane Linda in 1997, the most intense system in the East Pacific Basin.

Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean there are two Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMCs) who assign names to tropical cyclones when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 65 km/h, (40 mph). Tropical cyclones that intensify into tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC/RSMC Miami), whilst tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC/RSMC Honolulu). Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. Should a tropical cyclone pass from the NHC's area of responsibility in to the CPHC's or vice versa it will retain its original name.[1][2]

North Pacific east of 140°W[edit]

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°W then it will be named by the NHC. Six lists of names, alternating between masculine and feminine, are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization with them rotating on a yearly basis. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. If all of the names on a list are used, storms are then named after the letters of the Greek alphabet (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, etc.). Greek names, unlike the names in the regular lists, cannot be retired. If a storm ever reached the magnitude that might otherwise have led to retirement, the storm would be listed with the retired names with a footnote indicating the Greek lettter would still be available for future storms.[1][2] The next name to be used within the basin is Norbert.

2014 Amanda Boris Cristina Douglas Elida Fausto Genevieve Hernan Iselle Julio Karina Lowell
Marie Norbert Odile Polo Rachel Simon Trudy Vance Winnie Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2015 Andres Blanca Carlos Dolores Enrique Felicia Guillermo Hilda Ignacio Jimena Kevin Linda
Marty Nora Olaf Patricia Rick Sandra Terry Vivian Waldo Xina York Zelda
2016 Agatha Blas Celia Darby Estelle Frank Georgette Howard Isis Javier Kay Lester
Madeline Newton Orlene Paine Roslyn Seymour Tina Virgil Winifred Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2017 Adrian Beatriz Calvin Dora Eugene Fernanda Greg Hilary Irwin Jova Kenneth Lidia
Max Norma Otis Pilar Ramon Selma Todd Veronica Wiley Xina York Zelda
2018 Aletta Bud Carlotta Daniel Emilia Fabio Gilma Hector Ileana John Kristy Lane
Miriam Norman Olivia Paul Rosa Sergio Tara Vicente Willa Xavier Yolanda Zeke
2019 Alvin Barbara Cosme Dalila Erick Flossie Gil Henriette Ivo Juliette Kiko Lorena
Mario Narda Octave Priscilla Raymond Sonia Tico Velma Wallis Xina York Zelda
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[1][2]
Pewa and Unala near the International Dateline in August 2013

Central North Pacific (140°W to 180°)[edit]

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180° it is named by the CPHC. Four lists of Hawaiian names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. The last name to be used from this list was Wali, while the next one will be Ana.[1][2]

List 1 Akoni Ema Hone Iona Keli Lala Moke Nolo Olana Pena Ulana Wale
List 2 Aka Ekeka Hene Iolana Keoni Lino Mele Nona Oliwa Pama Upana Wene
List 3 Alika Ele Huko Iopa Kika Lana Maka Neki Omeka Pewa Unala Wali
List 4 Ana Ela Halola Iune Kilo Loke Malia Niala Oho Pali Ulika Walaka
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[1][2]

Western Pacific Ocean (180° to 100°E)[edit]

Typhoon Damrey in 2000, the first name ever to be used by the WMO.

Within the Northwestern Pacific Ocean there are two separate agencies who assign names to tropical cyclones which often results in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency names tropical cyclones should they be judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h, (40 mph), to the north of the equator between the 180° and 100°E. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N and 25°N even if the cyclone has had a name assigned to it by the Japan Meteorological Agency.[citation needed]

International names[edit]

Tropical Cyclones are named from the following lists by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in Tokyo, Japan, once they reach tropical storm strength. Names are contributed by members of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. Each of the 14 states or territories submitted 10 names, which are used in alphabetical order, by the English name of the country.[4][5]

Note: Names listed under United States are from Chamorro (language of the Mariana Islands), Palauan, and Marshallese. Names listed under Micronesia are from the four main languages of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The U.S. National Weather Service funds and administers weather offices in the FSM, Palau and the Marshall Islands.

Contributing
nation
Cambodia China North Korea
(DPRK)
Hong Kong Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Micronesia Philippines South Korea
(ROK)
Thailand USA Vietnam
List 1 Damrey Haikui Kirogi Kai-Tak Tembin Bolaven Sanba Jelawat Ewiniar Maliksi Gaemi Prapiroon Maria Son-Tinh
Ampil Wukong [Note 1] Shanshan Yagi Leepi Bebinca Rumbia Soulik Cimaron Jebi Mangkhut [Note 2] Trami
List 2 Kong-rey Yutu Toraji Man-yi Usagi Pabuk Wutip Sepat [Note 3] Danas Nari Wipha Francisco Lekima
Krosa [Note 4] Podul Lingling Kajiki Faxai Peipah Tapah Mitag Hagibis Neoguri Rammasun Matmo Halong
List 3 Nakri Fengshen Kalmaegi Fung-wong Kammuri Phanfone Vongfong Nuri Sinlaku Hagupit Jangmi Mekkhala Higos Bavi
Maysak Haishen Noul Dolphin Kujira Chan-hom Linfa Nangka Soudelor Molave Goni Atsani Etau Vamco
List 4 Krovanh Dujuan Mujigae Choi-wan Koppu Champi In-Fa Melor Nepartak Lupit Mirinae Nida Omais Conson
Chanthu Dianmu Mindulle Lionrock Kompasu Namtheun Malou Meranti Rai Malakas Megi Chaba Aere Songda
List 5 Sarika Haima Meari Ma-on Tokage Nock-ten Muifa Merbok Nanmadol Talas Noru Kulap Roke Sonca
Nesat Haitang Nalgae Banyan Hato Pakhar Sanvu Mawar Guchol Talim Doksuri Khanun Vicente Saola
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[4][5]

Philippines[edit]

Typhoon Rammasun (Glenda) just before landfall on July 2014

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones within the Philippine Area of Responsibility, regardless of whether it forms within or enters from beyond. These unique identifiers are usually local nicknames for people; should the list of names for a given year be exhausted, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first ten of which (i.e. those beginning in letter A-J) are published every year.[6] There are no names that begin with the Filipino letters Ñ, NG and X.

2014 Agaton Basyang Caloy Domeng Ester Florita Glenda Henry Inday Jose Kanor Luis Mario
Neneng Ompong Paeng Queenie Ruby Seniang Tomas Usman Venus Waldo Yayang Zeny
auxiliary: Agila Bagwis Chito Diego Elena Felino Gunding Harriet Indang Jessa Niño
2015 Amang Betty Chedeng Dodong Egay Falcon Goring Hanna Ineng Jenny Kabayan Lando Marilyn
Nonoy Onyok Perla Quiel Ramon Sarah Tisoy Ursula Viring Weng Yoyoy Zigzag
auxiliary: Abe Berto Charo Dado Estoy Felion Gening Herman Irma Jaime
2016 Ambo Butchoy Carina Dindo Enteng Ferdie Gener Helen Igme Julian Karen Lawin Marce
Nina Ofel Pepito Quinta Rolly Siony Tonyo Ulysses Vicky Warren Yoyong Zosimo
auxiliary: Alakdan Baldo Clara Dencio Estong Felipe Gardo Heling Ismael Julio
2017 Auring Bising Crising Dante Emong Fabian Gorio Huaning Isang Jolina Kiko Lannie Maring
Nando Odette Paolo Quedan Ramil Salome Tino Urduja Vinta Wilma Yasmin Zoraida
auxiliary: Alamid Bruno Conching Dolor Ernie Florante Gerardo Hernan Isko Jerome
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[6][7]

North Indian Ocean (45°E – 100°E)[edit]

Super Cyclonic Storm Gonu on June 4, 2007

Within this basin, a tropical cyclone is assigned a name when it is judged to have reached Cyclonic Storm intensity with winds of 65 km/h (40 mph). The names were selected by members of the ESCAP/WMO panel on Tropical Cyclones between 2000 and May 2004, before the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in New Delhi started to assign names in September 2004. There is no retirement of tropical cyclone names in this basin as the list of names is only scheduled to be used once before a new list of names is drawn up. Should a named tropical cyclone move into the basin, from the Western Pacific then it will retain its original name.[citation needed] The next name to be used within the basin is Hudhud.

Contributing
Nations
List 1 List 2 List 3 List 4 List 5 List 6 List 7 List 8
Bangladesh Onil Ogni Nisha Giri Helen Chapala Ockhi Fani
India Agni Akash Bijli Jal Lehar Megh Sagar Vayu
Maldives Hibaru Gonu Aila Keila Madi Roanu Mekunu Hikaa
Myanmar Pyarr Yemyin Phyan Thane Nanauk Kyant Daye Kyarr
Oman Baaz Sidr Ward Murjan Hudhud Nada Luban Maha
Pakistan Fanoos Nargis Laila Nilam Nilofar Vardah Titli Bulbul
Sri Lanka Mala Rashmi Bandu Viyaru Ashobaa Maarutha Gaja Pawan
Thailand Mukda Khai Muk Phet Phailin Komen Mora Phethai Amphan
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[8]

South-West Indian Ocean (90°E – 30°E)[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Anais, the earliest known intense tropical cyclone on record

Within the South-west Indian Ocean, tropical and subtropical depressions that are judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h, (40 mph) or more for at least 6 hours by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center on La Réunion Island, France are named. However it is the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centers in Mauritius and Madagascar who name the systems. The Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Center in Mauritius names the storm should it intensify into a moderate tropical storm between 55°E and 90°E; if the storm should intensify into a moderate tropical storm between 30°E and 55°E then the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Center in Madagascar assigns the appropriate name to the storm. New name lists are used every year, whilst a name is normally only used once so thus no names are retired.[5][9] The next name to be used within the basin is Adjali.

2012–13 Anais Boldwin Claudia Dumile Emang Felleng Gino Haruna Imelda Jamala Kachay Luciano Mariam
Njazi Onias Pelagie Quiliro Richard Solani Tamim Urilia Vuyane Wagner Xusa Yarona Zacarias
2013–14 Amara Bejisa Colin Deliwe Edilson Fobane Guito Hellen Ivanoe Jirani Katundu Letso Mirana
Naserian Opang Paya Querida Romane Singano Tarus Unami Vuma Wamil Xolile Yasmine Zamile
2014–15 Adjali Bansi Chedza Diamondra Eunice Fundi Glenda Haliba Ikola Joalane Kesha Lugenda Mahara
Nathan Oscar Puleng Quenelle Roselina Sitara Tarik Umali Vuntu Wezi Xolani Yolande Zita
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[9]

Australian Region (90°E – 160°E)[edit]

The Australian tropical cyclone warning centers area of responsibilities.

Within the Australian Region there are five different official Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers who assign names to tropical cyclones. However as three of the warning centers are run by the Bureau of Meteorology of Australia, only 3 lists of names exist. A tropical low or a tropical depression will be judged to have intensified into a tropical cyclone if winds reach 65 km/h, (40 mph) and it is evident that gales are occurring more than halfway around the center. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next WMO Regional Association V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.[10]

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 10°S and between 90°E and 141°E then it will be named by TCWC Jakarta. Should a tropical low intensify into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 10°S and between 141°E and 160°E are assigned names by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Tropical lows intensifying into tropical cyclones in all other areas between 90°E and 160°E as well as the Equator and 40°S are named by the Bureau of Meteorology of Australia.[9][10]

Indonesia[edit]

When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 10°S and between 90°E and 141°E it will be named by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Jakarta, Indonesia. Names are currently assigned in sequence from list A, whilst list B details names that will replace names on list A that are retired.[10][11] The next name to be used within the area is Bakung.

List A Anggrek Bakung Cempaka Dahlia Flamboyan Kenanga Lili Mangga Seroja Teratai
List B Anggur Belimbing Duku Jambu Lengkeng Melati Nangka Pisang Rambutan Sawo
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[10][11]

Australia[edit]

Cyclone Bruce, the first tropical cyclone to retain its name in the Southwest Indian Ocean region

When a tropical low intensifies into a tropical cyclone between 10°S and 40°S and between 90°E and 160°E, then it will be named by one of the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres in Perth, Darwin, or Brisbane. Starting with Anika, the names are assigned in alphabetical order, alternating between masculine and feminine names, with the lists used in rotating order without regard to year.[10][12] The next name that will be used within this basin is Kate.

Anika Billy Charlotte Dominic Ellie Freddy Gabrielle Herman Ilsa Jasper Kirrily
Lincoln Megan Neville Olga Paul Robyn Sean Tasha Vince Zelia ------
Anthony Bianca Courtney Dianne Errol Fina Grant Hayley Iggy Jenna Koji
Luana Mitchell Narelle [Note 5] Peta [Note 6] Sandra Tim Victoria Zane ------
Alessia Bruce Christine Dylan Edna Fletcher Gillian Hadi Ita Jack Kate
Lam Marcia Nathan Olwyn Quang Raquel Stan Tatjana Uriah Yvette ------
Alfred Blanche Caleb Debbie Ernie Frances Greg Hilda Ira Joyce Kelvin
Linda Marcus Nora Owen Penny Riley Savannah Trevor Veronica Wallace ------
Ann Blake Claudia Damien Esther Ferdinand Gretel Harold Imogen Joshua Kimi
Lucas Marian Noah Odette Paddy Ruby Seth Tiffany Vernon ------ ------
Sources for tropical cyclone names.[10][12]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

When a tropical low intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the equator and 10°S and between 141°E and 160°E then it will be named by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers in Port Moresby, New Guinea. Names are assigned randomly by TCWC Port Moresby whilst list B details replacement names for list A which will be added in the bottom of list A to maintain the alphabetical order. As tropical cyclones rarely form in TCWC Port Moresby's area of responsibility when one does form the name is retired regardless of any impact reported.[10]

List A Alu Buri Dodo Emau Fere Hibu Ila Kama Lobu Maila
List B Nou Obaha Paia Ranu Sabi Tau Ume Vali Wau Auram
Source for tropical cyclone names.[10]

Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E – 120°W)[edit]

Cyclone Evan in December 2012

Within the Southern Pacific a tropical depression is judged to have reached tropical cyclone intensity should it reach winds of 65 km/h (40 mph), and it is evident that gales are occurring at least halfway around the center. Tropical depressions that should intensify into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 25°S and between 160°E and 120°W are named by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji (RSMC Nadi). Should a Tropical Depression intensify to the south of 25°S between 160°E and 120°W, it will be named in conjunction with RSMC Nadi by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Wellington, New Zealand (TCWC Wellington). Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting, while tropical cyclones that move into the Australian region will retain its original name.[10] The next name that will be used within this basin is Nute.

List A Ana Bina Cody Dovi Eva Fili Gina Hagar Irene Judy Kerry Lola Mal
Nat Olo Pita Rae Sheila Tam Urmil Vaianu Wati Xavier Yani Zita
List B Arthur Becky Chip Denia Elisa Fotu Glen Hettie Innis Joni Ken Lin Moses
Nisha Opeti Pearl Rene Sarah Troy Vanessa Wano ------ Yvonne Zaka
List C Alvin Bune Cyril Daphne Evan Freda Garry Haley Ian June Kofi Lusi Mike
Nute Odile Pam Reuben Solo Tuni Ula Victor Winston ------ Yalo Zena
List D Amos Bart Colin Donna Ella Frank Gita Hali Iris Jo Kala Leo Mona
Neil Oma Pami Rita Sarai Tino ------ Vicky Wiki ------ Yolande Zazu
List E
(Standby)
Aru Bela Cook Dean Eden Florin Garth Hart Isa Julie Kevin Louise Mia
Niko Ola Pili Rex Suki Tasi Uraia Velma Wanita ------ Yates Zidane
Source for tropical cyclone names.[10][13]

Other areas[edit]

Tropical cyclone formation is rare within the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and to the east of 120W in the Southern Pacific, as a result there are no official naming lists for these areas although in 2004, 2010 & 2011 when tropical cyclones formed within the South Atlantic they were named as Catarina, Anita and Arani.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sonamu" was retired after Tropical Storm Sonamu (2013) but no name has been selected to replace the name.
  2. ^ "Utor" was retired after Typhoon Utor (2013) but no name has been selected to replace the name.
  3. ^ "Fitow" was retired after Typhoon Fitow (2013) but no name has been selected to replace the name.
  4. ^ "Haiyan" was retired after Typhoon Haiyan (2013) but no name has been selected to replace the name.
  5. ^ "Oswald" was retired after Cyclone Oswald but no name has been selected to replace the name.
  6. ^ "Rusty" was retired after Cyclone Rusty but no name has been selected to replace the name.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Unattributed (2010-06-01). "RA IV Hurricane Operational Plan for North America, Central America and the Caribbean Hurricane Operational Plan" (PDF). Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee. World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Unattributed. "Frequently asked questions: B: Tropical Cyclone Names". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 
  3. ^ Unattributed (2006-04-04). "RA IV Hurricane Committee Twenty-eighth Session report". Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee. World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2010-09-24. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  4. ^ a b Unattributed (2009-01-21). "Tropical Cyclone names". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  5. ^ a b c Unattributed (2010). "FAQ: B) Tropical cyclones names". Meteo France. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  6. ^ a b "Philippine Tropical cyclone names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. June 1, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Tropical cyclone names". Met Office - UK National Weather Service. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  8. ^ Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea: 2014 (2014 ed.). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved August 7, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee for the South-West Indian Ocean (2010) (PDF). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean (2012). World Meteorological Organization. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP-12-WMO-TD-577-rev-2012_121495_en.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (December 12, 2012) (PDF). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2012 (Report). World Meteorological Organization. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP24_RAVOpPlan_2012.pdf. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  11. ^ a b Unattributed. "Cyclone Names". Indonesian Meteorological and Geophysical Agency. Retrieved December 14, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b "Australian Tropical Cyclone Names". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  13. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (2011) (in French). Plan d'operations convernant les cyclones tropicaux dans le pacifique sud et le sudest de l'oc'ean Indien 2010 (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 21. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TD-292_TCP-24_2010_fr.pdf. Retrieved 2011-06-11.

External links[edit]