List of retired Pacific hurricane names

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Tracks of all retired Pacific hurricanes

Within the Pacific Ocean, the name of any significant tropical cyclone can be retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists by the World Meteorological Organization, if it is felt that a storm is so deadly or damaging that the future use of its name would be inappropriate. Within the Eastern and Central Pacific basins, a total of fifteen tropical cyclones have been deemed significant enough, to have their names removed from the lists of names used in the basins. The deadliest system to have its name retired was Hurricane Pauline, which caused over 230 fatalities when it struck Mexico during October 1997, while the costliest hurricane was Hurricane Manuel which caused an economic impact of over $4.2 billion in damage in September 2013. Manuel was also the most recent tropical cyclone to have its name retired.

Background[edit]

Hurricane Kenna near its peak intensity

In 1950 a tropical cyclone that affected Hawaii was named Able, after a tropical cyclone had not affected Hawaii for a number of years. The system subsequently became widely known as Hurricane Hiki, since Hiki is Hawaiian for Able.[1][2] Typhoons Olive and Della of 1952 and 1957, respectively, developed within the Central Pacific, but were not named until they had crossed the International Dateline and moved into the Western Pacific basin.[1][3] During 1957, two other tropical cyclones developed in the Central Pacific and were named Kanoa and Nina, by the Hawaiian military meteorological offices.[3] It was subsequently decided that future tropical cyclones, would be named by borrowing names from the Western Pacific naming lists.[4] Within the Eastern Pacific basin the naming of tropical cyclones started in 1960, with four sets of female names initially designed to be used consecutively before being repeated.[5][6] In 1965 after two lists of names had been used, it was decided to return to the top of the second list and to start recycling the sets of names on an annual basis.[6][7] In 1977 after protests by various women's rights groups, NOAA made the decision to relinquish control over the name selection by allowing a regional committee of the WMO to select new sets of names.[8] The WMO selected six lists of names which contained male names and rotated every six years.[8] They also decided that the new lists of hurricane name would start to be used in 1978 which was a year earlier than the Atlantic.[9] Since 1978 the same lists of names have been used, with names of significant tropical cyclones removed from the lists and replaced with new names.[6]

During 1979, after ten names had been borrowed from the Western Pacific naming lists, Hawaiian names were reinstated for tropical cyclones developing into tropical storms forming in the Central Pacific.[7] Five sets of Hawaiian names, using only the 12 letters of the Hawaiian alphabet, were drafted with the intent being to use the sets of names on an annual rotation basis.[7] However, after no storms had developed in this region between 1979 and 1981, the annual lists were scrapped and replaced with four sets of names and designed to be used consecutively.[7][10] Ahead of the 2007 hurricane season, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) and the Hawaii State Civil Defense, requested that the hurricane committee retire eleven names from the Eastern Pacific naming lists.[11] However, the committee declined the request and noted that its criteria for the retirement of names was "well defined and very strict."[12] It was felt that while the systems may have had a significant impact on the Hawaiian Islands, none of the impacts were major enough to warrant the retirement of the names.[12] It was also noted that the Committee, had previously not retired names for systems that had a greater impact than those that had been submitted.[12] The CPHC also introduced a revised set of Hawaiian names for the Central Pacific, after they had worked with the University of Hawaii Hawaiian Studies Department to ensure the correct meaning and appropriate historical and cultural use of the names.[11][13]

The practice of retiring significant names was started during 1955 by the United States Weather Bureau in the Atlantic basin, after hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the Northeastern United States and caused a significant amount of damage in the previous year.[14] Initially the names were only designed to be retired for ten years after which they might be reintroduced, however, it was decided at the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference, that any significant hurricane in the future would have its name permanently retired.[14][15] Several names have been removed from the Pacific naming lists for various other reasons than causing a significant amount of death/destruction, which include being pronounced in a very similar way to other names and political reasons.[16][17][18]

Names retired in the Eastern Pacific basin[edit]

Debris on beach in Acapulco, Mexico from Hurricane Manuel

Within the Eastern Pacific basin between the western coasts of the Americas and 140°W; twelve names have been retired, since naming started in the region during 1960.[16] Prior to the start of the modern naming lists in 1978, the names Hazel and Adele were retired from the list of names for reasons that are not clear.[16] The name Fico was subsequently retired after the system had affected Hawaii during 1978, before the name Knut was removed after being used in 1987.[16] During 1989 the name Iva was removed, as it was pronounced very similarly to Hurricane Iwa, which was retired from the Central Pacific lists of names in 1982 after affecting Hawaii.[18] In the early 1990s the names Fefa and Ismael were both retired, after they affected Hawaii and Northern Mexico respectively.[16] Hurricane Pauline became the deadliest Pacific hurricane to have its named retired after it had affected Mexico during 1997.[16] Two names Adolph and Israel were subsequently retired for political considerations, after a row brewed over the use of their names at the start of the 2001 hurricane season.[17][19][20] The name Kenna was retired in 2003, after it became one of the most intense Pacific hurricanes to be retired. The name Alma was retired in 2009 after it had become the first Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone on record, to make landfall along the Pacific Coast of Central America.[21] The name Manuel was retired in 2014, after it became the first Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone on record to make landfall in mainland Mexico, redevelop over water, and become a hurricane.[22]

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Hazel September 24 – 26, 1965 Tropical storm 60 mph (95 km/h) 986 hPa (29.12 inHg) Mexico $10 million 6 [23]
Adele May 30 – June 7, 1970 Category 1 hurricane 85 mph (140 km/h) ≤992 hPa (29.29 inHg) None None None [24]
Fico July 9 – 28, 1978 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (220 km/h) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Hawaii $200 thousand None [25]
Knut August 28 – 30, 1987 Tropical storm 40 mph (65 km/h) Not Specified No land areas None None [26]
Iva August 5 – 13, 1988 Category 2 hurricane 105 mph (165 km/h) 968 hPa (28.59 inHg) None None None [27]
Fefa July 29 – August 8, 1991 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (195 km/h) 959 hPa (28.32 inHg) Hawaii None None
Ismael September 12 – 16, 1995 Category 1 hurricane 80 mph (130 km/h) 7002983000000000000983 hPa (29.03 inHg) Northern Mexico $26 million 116
Pauline October 5–10, 1997 Category 4 hurricane 130 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (27.99 inHg) Oaxaca, Guerrero $448 million 230-400
Adolph May 25 - June 1, 2001 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002940000000000000940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Western Mexico None None [28]
Kenna October 22 – 26, 2002 Category 5 hurricane 165 mph (270 km/h) 913 hPa (26.96 inHg) Western Mexico, Southwestern United States $101 million 4 [29][30]
Alma May 29 – 30, 2008 Tropical storm 65 mph (100 km/h) 7002994000000000000994 hPa (29.35 inHg) Nicaragua $33 million 9 [31]
Manuel September 13 – 19, 2013 Category 1 hurricane 75 mph (120 km/h) 7002983000000000000983 hPa (29.03 inHg) Western Mexico $4.2 billion 123 [32]
References:[nb 1][nb 2] $4.82 billion 536

Names retired in the Central Pacific basin[edit]

Within the Central Pacific basin between 140°W and the International Dateline at 180° four names have been retired, since the introduction of a naming list for the Central Pacific in 1979.[7] Hurricanes Iwa and Iniki were retired after impacting Hawaii, while Paka and Ioke were retired after affecting various islands in Micronesia.[nb 3]

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Iwa November 19 – 25, 1982 Category 1 hurricane 90 mph (150 km/h) 7002968000000000000968 hPa (28.59 inHg) Hawaii $312 million 4 [34][35][36]
Iniki September 5 – 13, 1992 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (220 km/h) 7002938000000000000938 hPa (27.70 inHg) Hawaii $1.8 billion 6 [34][37]
Paka November 28 – December 23, 1997 Category 5 hurricane 185 mph (295 km/h) 7002920000000000000920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Marshall Islands, Guam, Mariana Islands $584 million None [38]
Ioke August 20 – September 9, 2006 Category 5 hurricane 160 mph (260 km/h) 7002915000000000000915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Johnston Atoll, Wake Island $88 million None [39]
4 names References:[nb 3][nb 2] $2.78 billion 10

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ References for the Eastern Pacific retired names.[16][17]
  2. ^ a b Reference for dates, season, wind speeds and pressure.[33]
  3. ^ a b References for the Central Pacific retired names.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Tropical Cyclones During the Years 1900-1952 (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1900-52.php. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  2. ^ Simpson, Robert H (December 1950). "Hiki—Hawaii's First Hurricane of Record". Weatherwise 3 (7): 127–128. doi:10.1080/00431672.1950.9927066. ISSN 0043-1672. Retrieved August 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "The 1957 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. April 12, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2014. 
  4. ^ Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal; Hurricane Research Division (June 1, 2014). "Subject: B1) How are tropical cyclones named?". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B1.html. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ Kohler, Joseph P, ed. (July 1960). "On The Editors Desk: Names for North Pacific Tropical Cyclones" (Mariners Weather Log) 4 (4). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Oceanographic Data Service. p. 107. ISSN 0025-3367. OCLC 648466886. hdl:2027/uc1.b3876059. 
  6. ^ a b c Blake, Eric S; Gibney, Ethan J; Brown, Daniel P; Mainelli, Michelle; Franklin, James L; Kimberlain, Todd B; Hammer, Gregory R (2009). Tropical Cyclones of the Eastern North Pacific Basin, 1949-2006 (PDF). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Padgett, Gary (July 13, 2008). November 2007 First Installment (Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary). Archived from the original on August 11, 2013. http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2008/summ0711a.htm. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Gary Padgett (January 1, 2008). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone summary: August 2007". Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. Retrieved December 31, 2009. 
  9. ^ Staff Writer (May 12, 1978). "Big Blows to get his and her names". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. Google News Archiv. Archived from the original on July 8, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010. 
  10. ^ (PDF) National Hurricane Operations Plan: 1980 (FCM 80-2). Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology and Supporting Research. May 1980. p. 19. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6QU7P2lSP. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  11. ^ a b (PDF) 61st IHC action items (Report). Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology. November 29, 2007. pp. 5-7. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6QU192n6o. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  12. ^ a b c RA IV Hurricane Committee (February 1, 2008) (PDF). RA IV Hurricane Committee 29th Session (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 7–8. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6QU1YAaP2. Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  13. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center (May 21, 2007). "NOAA announces Central Pacific hurricane season outlook" (Press release). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Dorst, Neal; Hurricane Research Division (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. Slides 8–72. 
  15. ^ Reuters (June 1, 1969). "It's time (June) to match for Anna...". The Daily Gleaner (Kingston, Jamaica). p. 2.  – via The Newspaper Archive (subscription required)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g RA IV Hurricane Committee (May 30, 2013). "Chapter 9: Tropical Cyclone Names". Regional Association IV: Hurricane Operational Plan 2013. World Meteorological Organization. pp. 98–99. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c d Landsea, Christopher W; Dorst, Neal (June 20, 2014). "Subject: B3) What storm names have been retired?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Questions:. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "Minutes of the 43rd Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference". The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. p. 23. 
  19. ^ Wohlhelernter, Elli (May 21, 2001). "Storm brewing over hurricane named Israel". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 21, 2012 – via Highbeam Research.  (subscription required)
  20. ^ "Storm blows over as 'Hurricane Israel' is retired". The Jerusalem Post. June 6, 2001. Retrieved July 21, 2012.   – via Highbeam Research (subscription required)
  21. ^ "Four Hurricane Names Retired From List of Storms" (Press release). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 1, 2009. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  22. ^ "WMO retires Ingrid and Manuel for Atlantic and eastern North Pacific basins" (Press release). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. April 10, 2014. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  23. ^ Hughes, Patrick E, ed. (March 1966). Eastern North Pacific Hurricanes, 1965 (Mariners Weather Log). 10. United States Environmental Science Services Administration's National Oceanographic Data Service. p. 43. ISSN 0025-3367. OCLC 648466886. hdl:2027/mdp.39015012688092.
  24. ^ Hughes, Patrick E, ed. (March 1971). Eastern North Pacific Hurricanes, 1970 (Mariners Weather Log). 15. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Oceanographic Data Service. p. 43. ISSN 0025-3367. OCLC 648466886. hdl:2027/uc1.b3876046.
  25. ^ State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (2012). "Geography and Environment". The State of Hawaii Data Book (PDF). p. 276. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  26. ^ Cross R.L (October 1988). "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1987" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 116 (10): 2106–2117. doi:10.1175/1520-0493.116.10.2106.1. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  27. ^ Gerrish, Harold P; Mayfield, Britt Max. "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1988" (PDF) 117 (10). Monthly Weather Review. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2266:ENPTCO>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  28. ^ http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0493%282003%29131%3C0249%3AASNPHS%3E2.0.CO%3B2
  29. ^ Franklin, James L (December 26, 2002). Hurricane Kenna - 22 - 26 October 2002 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2002kenna.shtml. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  30. ^ Carpenter, Guy (January 30, 2003) (PDF). 2002 Tropical Cyclone Review (Report). Archived from the original on May 16, 2014. http://gcportal.guycarp.com/portal/extranet/popup/pdf/GCPub/tropcyc_02.pdf. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  31. ^ Brown, Daniel P (July 7, 2008). Tropical Storm Alma - 29-30 May 2008 (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-EP012008_Alma.pdf. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  32. ^ Pasch, Richard J; Zelinsky, David A (January 6, 2014) (PDF). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Manuel: September 13 - 19, 2013 (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original on May 16, 2014. http://www.webcitation.org/6PbKPMC3a. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  33. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center (July 7, 2014). "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949-2013". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  34. ^ a b Blake, Eric S; Landsea, Christopher W; Gibney, Ethan J; National Hurricane Center (August 2011). The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (And Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts) (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 29. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/nws-nhc-6.pdf. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  35. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1982 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-29). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1982.php. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  36. ^ Tsai, Michael (July 2, 2006). "Hurricane Iwa". Honolulu Advertiser. Archived from the original on May 16, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014. 
  37. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1992.php. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  38. ^ National Climatic Data Center (1997). Del Greco, Stephen; Hinson, Stuart, eds. "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena". Storm Data (United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service): 66. ISSN 0039-1972. Archived from the original on April 16, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014. 
  39. ^ Advisory Council for Historic Preservation (May 7, 2007) (PDF). Spring 2007 Case Digest — Protecting Historic Properties section 106 in action (Report). Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. http://www.achp.gov/docs/case_spring_07small.pdf. Retrieved April 15, 2014.

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