List of retired Pacific hurricane names

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Tracks of all retired Pacific hurricanes

This is a list of all Pacific hurricanes that have had their names retired. Hurricane names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in the spring of each year. Those hurricanes that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms that often become household names in the regions they affected. Storm names are retired following a request made at the WMO meeting by one or more of the countries affected by a hurricane. Eight tropical cyclone names have been retired since the start of tropical cyclone naming in the eastern Pacific Ocean, including four storms named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center. In addition, several names were removed from the naming list for various reasons other than retirement.

Background[edit]

Since 1960, 13 storms have had their names removed from the list of Pacific hurricane names, including two from the Central Pacific. Of these, two names, Adolph and Israel were retired for political considerations, after a row brewed over the use of their names at the start of the 2001 season.[1][2][3] Two names prior to the start of modern naming in 1978 were removed from the lists for unknown reasons: Hazel was removed following its usage in 1965 and Adele was removed following its usage in 1970.[4] The former made landfall on northwestern Mexico as a minimal tropical storm with no known effects, while Adele remained at sea for its duration. However, Hurricane Hazel was previously retired in the Atlantic basin. Since the standardization of Pacific hurricane naming in 1978, several names have been retired due to pronunciation ambiguity, a socially unacceptable meaning in another language, or because they represented a significant human disaster. The name Knut in 1987 was removed from naming lists without having affected any landmass, and replaced with Kenneth.[4] The name Iva was removed in 1989, as it was pronounced very similarly to Hurricane Iwa which was retired in 1982 after affecting Hawaii.[5] Hurricanes Fico and Fefa were also removed from lists however, it is unknown whether the names were removed due to issues regarding the pronunciation or meaning of their names or due to their respective damages on Hawaii.[6]

Multiple names were altered slightly by changing the spelling of a tropical cyclone name. Kirsten in 1966 became Kristen in 1970, though was reverted to Kirsten in 1974.[7] The name Dalilia, which was used in 1983 and 1989, was changed to Dalila in 1995, a change which remains intact on the naming list.[8] The name Dolores, which was used in 1979 and 1985, was changed to Delores for the 1991 season. In 1997 it was reverted to Dolores, a change which remains on the list of Pacific tropical cyclone names.[7]

Prior to 1957, two storms in the Central Pacific Ocean received Hawaiian names and were never re-used. From 1957 until the late 1970s, names in the basin received names from the list of typhoon names for its year, though none were retired. Since the modern system of Central Pacific tropical cyclone naming began in the early 1980s, two names were retired for their effects on Hawaii. Iwa was replaced with Io following its usage in 1982, and Iniki was replaced with Iolana following its usage in 1992.[7] In 2006, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center changed or removed sixteen names in the basin, including several that were never used. Of the sixteen, two names were retired; Typhoon Paka was replaced with Pama following its usage in 1997, and Hurricane Ioke was replaced with Iopa following its usage in 2006. Typhoon Paka was named in the central Pacific Ocean, though attained peak strength and caused greatest impact in the western Pacific Ocean.[9]

List of retired names[edit]

Hurricane Kenna near its peak intensity
Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

While the intensity of tropical cyclones is measured solely by central pressure, wind speeds are also estimated; the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is used in the Pacific basin to rank hurricanes according to their strongest 1-minute sustained winds. While most hurricanes do not make landfall at their peak intensity, they are often referred to by their strongest Saffir-Simpson Category rather than by their landfall Category.

While many damaging storms caused little loss of life, most deadly storms also caused heavy damage. Most storms cause fatalities not by their high winds but rather through flooding - either storm surge or inland flooding due to rainfall. Storm surge has the highest potential for deaths; with modern forecasting, warning, and evacuation storm surge deaths can be almost eliminated, but the potential is still very high for catastrophe in places where warning systems are not in place or if warnings are ignored. Inland flooding, by contrast, is unpredictable because it depends heavily on a hurricane's interaction with the terrain and with other nearby weather systems.

There have been several deadlier hurricanes than the following that were not retired. Hurricane Tara killed at least 500 people in southern Mexico in 1961,[10] Hurricane Liza caused at least 425 deaths along the Baja California Peninsula in 1976.,[11] and Hurricane Paul killed over 1,000 people in Central America.

Eastern Pacific[edit]

Name Dates active Peak classification Peak 1-minute
sustained winds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Hazel September 24 – 26, 1965 Tropical storm 60 mph (95 km/h) 986 hPa (29.12 inHg) Mexico $10 million 6 [12]
Adele May 30 – June 7, 1970 Category 1 hurricane 85 mph (140 km/h) ≤992 hPa (29.29 inHg) None None None [13]
Fico July 9 – 28, 1978 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (220 km/h) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Hawaii $200 thousand None [14]
Knut August 28 – 30, 1987 Tropical storm 40 mph (65 km/h) Not Specified No land areas None None
Fefa July 29 – August 8, 1991 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (195 km/h) 959 hPa (28.32 inHg) Hawaii None None
Ismael September 12 – 16, 1992 Category 1 hurricane 80 mph (130 km/h) 7002983000000000000983 hPa (29.03 inHg) Northern Mexico $26 million 116
Pauline October 5 - 10, 1997 Category 4 hurricane 130 mph (215 km/h) 7002948000000000000948 hPa (27.99 inHg) Oaxaca, Guerrero $448 million 315
Adolph May 25 - June 1, 2001 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 7002940000000000000940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Mexico None None [15]
Kenna October 22 – 26, 2002 Category 5 hurricane 165 mph (270 km/h) 913 hPa (26.96 inHg) Western Mexico, Southwestern United States $101 million 4
Alma May 29 – 30, 2008 Tropical storm 65 mph (100 km/h) 7002994000000000000994 hPa (29.35 inHg) Nicaragua $3.5 billion 11
Manuel September 13 – 19, 2013 Category 1 hurricane 75 mph (120 km/h) 7002983000000000000983 hPa (29.03 inHg) Western Mexico $4.2 billion 169 [16]
References:[nb 1][nb 2] $4.82 billion 536

Central Pacific[edit]

Name Dates active Peak classification Peak 1-minute
sustained winds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Iwa November 19 – 25, 1982 Category 1 hurricane 90 mph (150 km/h) 7002968000000000000968 hPa (28.59 inHg) Hawaii $312 million 1 [20]
Iniki September 5 – 13, 1992 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (220 km/h) 7002938000000000000938 hPa (27.70 inHg) Hawaii $1.8 billion 6 [20][21]
Paka November 28 – December 23, 1997 Category 5 hurricane 185 mph (295 km/h) 7002920000000000000920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Marshall Islands, Guam, Mariana Islands $584 million None [22]
Ioke August 20 – September 9, 2006 Category 5 hurricane 160 mph (260 km/h) 7002915000000000000915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Johnston Atoll, Wake Island $88 million None [23]
4 names References:[nb 3][nb 2] $2.78 billion 10

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ References for the Eastern Pacific retired names.[17][18]
  2. ^ a b Reference for dates, season, wind speeds and pressure.[19]
  3. ^ References for the Central Pacific retired names.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wohlhelernter, Elli (2001-05-21). "Storm brewing over hurricane named Israel". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2012-07-21.  (Accessed through the HighBeam Research archives.)
  2. ^ "Storm blows over as 'Hurricane Israel' is retired". The Jerusalem Post. 2001-06-06. Retrieved 2012-07-21.  (Accessed through the HighBeam Research News archives.)
  3. ^ Padgett Gary; Beven, John (Jack) L; Lewis Free, James; Delgado, Sandy; The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory's Hurricane Research Division (2012-06-01). "Subject: B3) What storm names have been retired?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Questions. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Oceanic and Atmospherc Research office. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  4. ^ a b Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee. Regional Association IV Hurricane Operational Plan 2012 (Report No. TCP30). p. 101. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP30_Edition2012.pdf. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  5. ^ "Minutes of the 43rd Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, January 10-13, 1989, United States Air Force Conference Center, Homestead AFB, Florida". Washington DC, United States of America: The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research. p. 23. 
  6. ^ World Meteorological Organization (2007). "Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) Hurricane Operational Plan (Report No. TCP30)". pp. Table IV, Names of Eastern North Pacific Ocean Storms Retired into Hurricane History, page 9–5. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  7. ^ a b c Atlantic Tropical Weather Center (2006). "Tropical Cyclone Retirement". Ablaze Productions, Inc. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  8. ^ Edward N. Rappaport (1995). "Tropical Storm Dalila Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  9. ^ Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (2007). "61st Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference Action Items". Retrieved 2007-07-21. 
  10. ^ Tony Burton (2001). "Mexico in November - A Historical Review". Mexico Connect. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  11. ^ Gunther, Emil B. (1977-04-01). "Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclones of 1976". Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 105 (4): 508–522. Bibcode:1977MWRv..105..508G. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0508:EPTCO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  12. ^ Hughes, Patrick E, ed. (March 1966). Eastern North Pacific Hurricanes, 1965 (Mariners Weather Log). 10. United States Environmental Science Services Administration's National Oceanographic Data Service. p. 43. ISSN 0025-3367. OCLC 648466886. hdl:2027/mdp.39015012688092.
  13. ^ Hughes, Patrick E, ed. (March 1971). Eastern North Pacific Hurricanes, 1970 (Mariners Weather Log). 15. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Oceanographic Data Service. p. 43. ISSN 0025-3367. OCLC 648466886. hdl:2027/uc1.b3876046.
  14. ^ State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (2012). "Geography and Environment" (PDF). The State of Hawaii Data Book. p. 276. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  15. ^ http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0493%282003%29131%3C0249%3AASNPHS%3E2.0.CO%3B2
  16. ^ Steve Jakubowski; Adityam Krovvidi; Adam Podlaha; Steve Bowen. "September 2013 Global Catasrophe Recap". Impact Forecasting. AON Benefield. Retrieved October 25, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b Padgett, Gary; Beven, John L; Free, James Lewis; Delgado, Sandy; Hurricane Research Division; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (May 23, 2013). "Subject: B3) What storm names have been retired?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Questions:. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Retrieved December 2, 2012. 
  18. ^ RA IV Hurricane Committee (May 30, 2013). "Chapter 9: Tropical Cyclone Names". Regional Association IV: Hurricane Operational Plan 2013. World Meteorological Organization. pp. 98–99. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  19. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center (April 5, 2013). "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949-2012". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved April 26, 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Blake, Eric S; Landsea, Christopher W; Gibney, Ethan J; National Hurricane Center (August 2011). The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (And Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts) (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 29. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/nws-nhc-6.pdf. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  21. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1992.php. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  22. ^ National Climatic Data Center (1997). "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena". In Del Greco, Stephen; Hinson, Stuart. Storm Data (United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service): 66. ISSN 0039-1972. Archived from the original on April 16, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014. 
  23. ^ Advisory Council for Historic Preservation (May 7, 2007) (PDF). Spring 2007 Case Digest — Protecting Historic Properties section 106 in action (Report). Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. http://www.achp.gov/docs/case_spring_07small.pdf. Retrieved April 15, 2014.

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