List of retired Pacific hurricane names
This is a list of all Pacific hurricanes that have had their names retired. Hurricane names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in the Spring of each year. Those hurricanes that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms that often become household names in the regions they affected. Storm names are retired following a request made at the WMO meeting by one or more of the countries affected by a hurricane. Eight tropical cyclone names have been retired since the start of tropical cyclone naming in the eastern Pacific Ocean, including four storms named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center. In addition, several names were removed from the naming list for various reasons other than retirement.
Since 1960, 13 storms have had their names removed from the list of Pacific hurricane names, including two from the Central Pacific. Of these, two names, Adolph and Israel were retired for political considerations, after a row brewed over the use of their names at the start of the 2001 season. Two names prior to the start of modern naming in 1978 were removed from the lists for unknown reasons: Hazel was removed following its usage in 1965 and Adele was removed following its usage in 1970. The former made landfall on northwestern Mexico as a minimal tropical storm with no known effects, while Adele remained at sea for its duration. However, Hurricane Hazel was previously retired in the Atlantic basin. Since the standardization of Pacific hurricane naming in 1978, several names have been retired due to pronunciation ambiguity, a socially unacceptable meaning in another language, or because they represented a significant human disaster. The name Knut in 1987 was removed from naming lists without having affected any landmass, and replaced with Kenneth. The name Iva was removed in 1989, as it was pronounced very similarly to Hurricane Iwa which was reitred in 1982 after affecting Hawaii. Hurricanes Fico and Fefa were also removed from lists however, it is unknown whether the names were removed due to issues regarding the pronunciation or meaning of their names or due to their respective damages on Hawaii.
Multiple names were altered slightly by changing the spelling of a tropical cyclone name. Kirsten in 1966 became Kristen in 1970, though was reverted to Kirsten in 1974. The name Dalilia, which was used in 1983 and 1989, was changed to Dalila in 1995, a change which remains intact on the naming list. The name Dolores, which was used in 1979 and 1985, was changed to Delores for the 1991 season. In 1997 it was reverted to Dolores, a change which remains on the list of Pacific tropical cyclone names.
Prior to 1957, two storms in the Central Pacific Ocean received Hawaiian names and were never re-used. From 1957 until the late 1970s, names in the basin received names from the list of typhoon names for its year, though none were retired. Since the modern system of Central Pacific tropical cyclone naming began in the early 1980s, two names were retired for their effects on Hawaii. Iwa was replaced with Io following its usage in 1982, and Iniki was replaced with Iolana following its usage in 1992. In 2006, the Central Pacific Hurricane Center changed or removed sixteen names in the basin, including several that were never used. Of the sixteen, two names were retired; Typhoon Paka was replaced with Pama following its usage in 1997, and Hurricane Ioke was replaced with Iopa following its usage in 2006. Typhoon Paka was named in the central Pacific Ocean, though attained peak strength and caused greatest impact in the western Pacific Ocean.
Lists of retired names due to impact
Listed by intensity
|Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale|
This lists all retired hurricanes by their peak intensity, which is determined by measurements of the minimum central pressure.
While the intensity of tropical cyclones is measured solely by central pressure, wind speeds are also estimated; the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is used in the Pacific basin to rank hurricanes according to their strongest 1-minute sustained winds. While most hurricanes do not make landfall at their peak intensity, they are often referred to by their strongest Saffir-Simpson Category rather than by their landfall Category.
Of the storms in the Pacific whose names have been retired, one peaked as a tropical storm, two peaked as Category 1 hurricanes, two peaked as Category 4 hurricanes, and three peaked as a Category 5 hurricane. Many storms of high intensities have not had their names retired because most Pacific hurricanes do not make landfall.
|Name||Season||Max. 1-min. average sustained wind||Min. central pressure|
Listed by total damages
This lists all retired Pacific hurricanes by their total damages (in 2013 USD). Hurricane names are generally retired for one of two reasons, either because they were particularly damaging or particularly deadly. Some data may be incomplete and account for damages in only one location while the storm affected several. Calculation of modern-day damage amounts is done using the Consumer Price Index.
|Name||Season||Damages (at the time)||Damages (2013 USD)|
|Iniki||1992||7009180000000000000$1.8 billion||$2.99 billion|||
|Paka||1997||7008584000000000000$584 million||$849 million|||
|Iwa||1982||7008308000000000000$308 million||$745 million|||
|Pauline||1997||7008447800000000000$448 million||$651 million|||
|Kenna||2002||7008101000000000000$101 million||7008131085106000000$131 million|||
|Ioke||2006||7007880000000000000$88 million||$102 million|||
|Alma||2008||7007350000000000000$35 million||$37.9 million|||
|Ismael||1995||7007260000000000000$26 million||$39.8 million|||
Listed by death toll
This lists retired Pacific hurricanes by the number of deaths they caused. Hurricane names are generally retired for one of two reasons, either because they were particularly damaging or particularly deadly. While many damaging storms caused little loss of life, most deadly storms also caused heavy damage. Most storms cause fatalities not by their high winds but rather through flooding - either storm surge or inland flooding due to rainfall. Storm surge has the highest potential for deaths; with modern forecasting, warning, and evacuation storm surge deaths can be almost eliminated, but the potential is still very high for catastrophe in places where warning systems are not in place or if warnings are ignored. Inland flooding, by contrast, is unpredictable because it depends heavily on a hurricane's interaction with the terrain and with other nearby weather systems.
There have been several deadlier hurricanes than the following that were not retired. Hurricane Tara killed at least 500 people in southern Mexico in 1961, Hurricane Liza caused at least 425 deaths along the Baja California Peninsula in 1976., and Hurricane Paul killed over 1,000 people in Central America.
|Name||Season||Direct deaths||Primary location|
|Pauline||1997||230 - 400||Oaxaca, Guerrero|
Landfall of a tropical cyclone occurs when the center of the eye moves over land. Damages from a tropical cyclone are usually but not always greatest near its landfall location. This table lists the retired hurricanes in chronological order with their landfall locations under columns designating their strength on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale at the time of landfall.
The list excludes three retired hurricanes that never made landfall anywhere at any intensity. Hurricane Iwa in 1982 brought hurricane-force winds to parts of Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands. The center of Typhoon Paka in 1997 passed slightly north of Guam as a Category 4-equivalent storm. Hurricane Ioke in 2006 blasted Johnston Atoll and Wake Island, two minor outlying islands of United States of America.
|Category 5||Category 4||Category 3||Category 2||Category 1||Tropical storm|
- List of Pacific hurricanes
- List of retired Atlantic hurricane names
- List of retired Pacific typhoon names
- List of retired Philippine typhoon names
- List of retired Australian cyclone names
- List of retired South Pacific tropical cyclone names
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