World Meteorological Organization

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"WMO" redirects here. For other uses, see WMO (disambiguation).
المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية
World Meteorological Organization
Organisation météorologique mondiale
Organización Meteorológica Mundial
Всемирная Метеорологическая Организация
世界气象组织
Flag of the World Meteorological Organization.svg
WMO flag
Abbreviation WMO
OMM
Formation 1950
Type UN agency
Legal status
Active
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Head
Michel Jarraud (Secretary-General)
David Grimes (President)
Website www.wmo.int

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.[1] The current Secretary-General is Michel Jarraud.[2] The current president is David Grimes.[3]

The organization[edit]

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.[4]

WMO has a membership of 191 member states and territories, as of February 2014. The Convention of the World Meteorological Organization was signed 11 October 1947[5] and established upon ratification in 1950. WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations in 1951 for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873.[4]

The WMO hierarchy:

  • The World Meteorological Congress determines the policy of WMO and meets every four years. Each Member country is represented by a Permanent Representative with WMO. The Permanent Representative should be the director of the National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Service.
  • The Executive Council (EC) implements Congress decisions and meets once a year.
  • Six regional associations for addressing regional concerns (see the section on regional associations, below)
  • Eight technical commissions provide technical recommendations for WMO and the national services.
  • The secretariat headed by the Secretary-General coordinates the activities of WMO with a regular staff of more than 250 employees.[6]

Activities[edit]

WMO provides a framework for international cooperation in the development of meteorology and operational hydrology and their practical application.[7]

Since its establishment, WMO has played a unique and powerful role in contributing to the safety and welfare of humanity. Under WMO leadership and within the framework of WMO programs,[8] National Meteorological and Hydrological Services[9] contribute substantially to the protection of life and property against natural disasters, to safeguarding the environment and to enhancing the economic and social well-being of all sectors of society in areas such as food security, water resources and transport.[7]

The WMO and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It is also directly responsible for the creation of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The IPCC has received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."[10]

WMO promotes cooperation in the establishment of networks for making meteorological, climatological, hydrological and geophysical observations, as well as the exchange, processing and standardization of related data, and assists technology transfer, training and research. It also fosters collaboration between the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of its Members and furthers the application of meteorology to public weather services, agriculture, aviation, shipping, the environment, water issues and the mitigation of the impacts of natural disasters.[citation needed]

WMO facilitates the free and unrestricted exchange of data and information, products and services in real- or near-real time on matters relating to safety and security of society, economic welfare and the protection of the environment. It contributes to policy formulation in these areas at national and international levels.[citation needed]

In the specific case of weather-, climate and water-related hazards, which account for nearly 90% of all natural disasters, WMO's programs provide vital information for the advance warnings that save lives and reduce damage to property and the environment. WMO also contributes to reducing the impacts of human-induced disasters, such as those associated with chemical and nuclear accidents, forest fire and volcanic ash. Studies have shown that, apart from the incalculable benefit to human well-being, every dollar invested in meteorological and hydrological services produces an economic return many times greater, often ten times or more.[citation needed]

WMO plays a leading role in international efforts to monitor and protect the environment through its programs. In collaboration with other UN agencies and the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, WMO supports the implementation of a number of environmental conventions[11] and is instrumental in providing advice and assessments to governments on related matters. These activities contribute towards ensuring the sustainable development and well-being of nations.[citation needed]

WMO publishes the International Cloud Atlas, the international standard cloud atlas since 1896.[citation needed]

Meteorological codes[edit]

In keeping with its mandate to promote the standardization of meteorological observations, the WMO maintains numerous code forms for the representation and exchange of meteorological, oceanographical, and hydrological data. The traditional code forms, such as SYNOP, CLIMAT and TEMP, are character-based and their coding is position-based. Newer WMO code forms are designed for portability, extensibility and universality. These are BUFR, CREX, and, for gridded geo-positioned data, GRIB.[citation needed]

World Meteorological Day[edit]

WMO seat in Geneva shared with the GICHD, the GCSP and the Group on Earth Observations
  WMO member states
  WMO member territories
  • World Meteorological Day is held annually on 23 March.[12]

Awards and prizes[edit]

WMO conference on climate prediction and information for decision-making[edit]

World Climate Conference-3 (WCC-3) was held from 31 August to 4 September 2009 in Geneva, Switzerland, under the auspices of WMO. Its goal was to address advancements in seasonal to multi-decadal climate predictions and to spur their applications to decision-making in socio-economic sectors, including food, water, energy, health, tourism and development sectors. The Conference aimed to contribute to the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and broader UN climate goals through support for climate adaptation.[13]

Membership[edit]

As of February 2014, member states of the organisation include 183 of the 193 UN members, the Cook Islands and Niue, for a total of 185 member states. Additionally there are 6 member territories, listed below.[14]

There are 10 states that are members of the United Nations, but not of the WMO. These are: Andorra, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and San Marino; the most populous of these countries is Equatorial Guinea, with nearly 700,000 inhabitants. Non-members of either organisation include the Vatican City and the states with limited recognition.[citation needed]

The six member territories are: the British Caribbean Territories (joint meteorological organisation and membership),[15] French Polynesia, Hong Kong, Macau, Curaçao and Sint Maarten (joint meteorological service and membership),[15] and New Caledonia. Below is a table of all members with admission dates.[citation needed]

Current member states[edit]

States that joined the WMO before they joined the UN are marked with a blue background. States that are members of the WMO, but not of the UN are marked with a green background. For comparison, see Member states of the United Nations. The dates are the dates of the ratification of the WMO Convention by the member, or the date of accession.[16] The national meteorological services belonging to each member state are also listed.[17]

Member states National Meteorological Services Date of admission
 Afghanistan Afghanistan Meteorological Authority 11 September 1956
 Albania Hydrometeorological Institute of Albania 29 July 1957
 Algeria 4 April 1963
 Angola 16 March 1977
 Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Services 16 November 1988
 Argentina 2 January 1951
 Armenia 16 September 1992
 Australia Bureau of Meteorology 14 March 1949
 Austria Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics 23 February 1955
 Azerbaijan 27 December 1993
 Bahamas Bahamas Meteorology Department 29 November 1973
 Bahrain 21 April 1980
 Bangladesh Bangladesh Meteorological Department 24 August 1973
 Barbados Barbados Meteorological Services 22 March 1967
 Belarus 12 April 1948
 Belgium Royal Meteorological Institute 2 February 1951
 Belize Belize National Meteorological Service 25 May 1982
 Benin 14 April 1961
 Bhutan 11 February 2003
 Bolivia, Plurinational State of 15 May 1954
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 June 1994
 Botswana 16 October 1967
 Brazil 15 March 1950
 Brunei Darussalam 26 November 1984
 Bulgaria 12 March 1952
 Burkina Faso 31 October 1960
 Burundi 30 October 1962
 Cambodia 8 November 1955
 Cameroon 17 December 1960
 Canada Meteorological Service of Canada 28 July 1950
 Cape Verde 21 October 1975
 Central African Republic 28 June 1961
 Chad 2 February 1961
 Chile 9 May 1957
 People's Republic of China China Meteorological Administration 25 February 1972[18]
 Colombia Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies 5 January 1962
 Comoros 15 March 1976
 Congo 21 November 1960
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 5 November 1960
 Cook Islands 18 October 1995
 Costa Rica Instituto Meteorológico Nacional 16 December 1960
 Côte d'Ivoire 31 October 1960
 Croatia Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service 9 October 1992
 Cuba 4 March 1952
 Cyprus 11 April 1963
 Czech Republic Czech Hydrometeorological Institute 25 January 1993
 Denmark Danish Meteorological Institute 10 July 1951
 Djibouti 30 June 1978
 Dominica 21 February 1980
 Dominican Republic 15 September 1949
 Ecuador Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (Ecuador) 7 June 1950
 Egypt 10 January 1950
 El Salvador 27 May 1955
 Eritrea 8 July 1993
 Estonia Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute 21 August 1992
 Ethiopia 3 December 1953
 Fiji Fiji Meteorological Service 18 March 1980
 Finland Finnish Meteorological Institute 7 January 1949
 France Météo-France 5 December 1949
 Gabon 5 June 1961
 Gambia 2 October 1978
 Georgia 1 September 1993
 Germany Deutscher Wetterdienst 10 June 1954
 Ghana 6 May 1957
 Greece Hellenic National Meteorological Service 20 January 1950
 Guatemala Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrología 21 March 1952
 Guinea 27 March 1959
 Guinea-Bissau 15 December 1977
 Guyana 22 November 1966
 Haiti 14 August 1951
 Honduras 10 October 1960
 Hungary 15 February 1951
 Iceland Icelandic Meteorological Office 16 January 1948
 India India Meteorological Department 27 April 1949
 Indonesia Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics 16 November 1950
 Iran, Islamic Republic of 30 September 1959
 Iraq 21 February 1950
 Ireland Met Éireann 14 March 1950
 Israel Israel Meteorological Service 30 September 1949
 Italy Servizio Meteorologico 9 January 1951
 Jamaica 29 May 1963
 Japan Japan Meteorological Agency 11 August 1953
 Jordan 11 July 1955
 Kazakhstan 5 May 1993
 Kenya 2 June 1964
 Kiribati 26 March 2003
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 27 May 1975
South Korea Republic of Korea Korea Meteorological Administration 15 February 1956
 Kuwait 1 December 1962
 Kyrgyzstan 20 July 1994
Laos Lao People's Democratic Republic 1 June 1955
 Latvia Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre 15 May 1992
 Lebanon 22 December 1948
 Lesotho 3 August 1979
 Liberia 7 February 1974
 Libya 29 December 1955
 Lithuania 3 June 1992
 Luxembourg 29 October 1952
 Macedonia[19] 1 June 1993
 Madagascar 15 December 1960
 Malawi 15 February 1965
 Malaysia 19 May 1958
 Maldives 1 June 1978
 Mali 11 November 1960
 Malta 28 December 1976
 Mauritania 23 January 1961
 Mauritius 17 July 1969
 Mexico Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Mexico) 27 May 1949
 Federated States of Micronesia 20 September 1995
 Moldova 21 November 1994
 Monaco 9 April 1996
 Mongolia 4 April 1963
 Montenegro Hydrometeorological Institute of Montenegro 6 December 2006
 Morocco 3 January 1957
 Mozambique Mozambique National Institute of Meteorology 21 June 1976
 Myanmar 19 August 1949
 Namibia 6 February 1991
   Nepal 12 August 1966
 Kingdom of the Netherlands Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute 12 September 1951
 New Zealand Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited 2 April 1948
 Nicaragua 27 February 1959
 Niger 28 October 1960
 Nigeria 30 November 1960
 Niue 31 May 1996
 Norway Norwegian Meteorological Institute 9 December 1948
 Oman 3 January 1975
 Pakistan Pakistan Meteorological Department 11 April 1950
 Panama 12 September 1967
 Papua New Guinea 15 December 1975
 Paraguay 15 September 1950
 Peru 30 December 1949
 Philippines Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration 5 April 1949
 Poland 16 May 1950
 Portugal Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera 15 January 1951
 Qatar 4 April 1975
 Romania Administraţia Naţionala de Meteorologie 18 August 1948
 Russian Federation Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of Russia 2 April 1948
 Rwanda 4 February 1963
 Saint Lucia 2 March 1981
 Samoa 11 July 1995
 São Tomé and Príncipe 23 November 1976
 Saudi Arabia 26 February 1959
 Senegal 1 November 1960
 Serbia Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia 21 February 2001
 Seychelles 15 February 1977
 Sierra Leone 30 March 1962
 Singapore 24 January 1966
 Slovakia 11 February 1993
 Slovenia Slovenian Environment Agency 20 August 1992
 Solomon Islands 6 May 1985
 Somalia 2 March 1964
 South Africa South African Weather Service 17 January 1950
 South Sudan 14 December 2012
 Spain Agencia Estatal de Meteorología 27 February 1951
 Sri Lanka 23 May 1951
 Sudan 3 December 1956
 Suriname 26 July 1976
 Swaziland 2 November 1982
 Sweden Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute 10 November 1948
  Switzerland MeteoSwiss 23 February 1949
 Syria Syrian Arab Republic 16 July 1952
 Tajikistan 10 August 1993
 Tanzania, United Republic of 14 September 1962
 Thailand 11 July 1949
 Timor-Leste, Democratic Republic of 4 December 2009
 Togo 28 October 1960
 Tonga Tonga Meteorological Service 25 February 1996
 Trinidad and Tobago 1 February 1963
 Tunisia 22 January 1957
 Turkey Turkish State Meteorological Service 5 August 1949
 Turkmenistan 4 December 1992
 Tuvalu 22 September 2012
 Uganda 15 March 1963
 Ukraine 12 April 1948
 United Arab Emirates 17 December 1986
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Met Office 14 December 1948
 United States of America National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 4 May 1949
 Uruguay 11 January 1951
 Uzbekistan 23 December 1992
 Vanuatu 24 June 1982
 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of 16 June 1950
 Vietnam 2 July 1976[20]
 Yemen 22 May 1990[21]
 Zambia 28 December 1964
 Zimbabwe 12 January 1981

Historical member states[edit]

Member states Date of admission Date membership ended Note
 Republic of China 2 March 1951 25 February 1972 Seat in the UN transferred to the People's Republic of China (see China and the United Nations for details)
 East Germany 23 May 1973 3 October 1990 German reunification
 South Vietnam 2 March 1955 2 July 1976 Reunification of Vietnam
 North Vietnam 8 July 1975 2 July 1976 Reunification of Vietnam
 North Yemen 8 June 1971 22 May 1990 Yemeni unification
 South Yemen 28 January 1969 22 May 1990 Yemeni unification
 Yugoslavia 7 December 1948  ? Breakup of Yugoslavia

Member territories[edit]

Member territories Meteorological Services Date of admission
British Caribbean Territories Caribbean Meteorological Organisation 24 September 1953
 Curaçao and  Sint Maarten Meteorological Department Curaçao 12 September 1951
 French Polynesia Météo-France Polynesie Francaise 5 December 1949
 Hong Kong, China Hong Kong Observatory 14 December 1948
 Macau, China Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau 24 January 1996
 New Caledonia Météo-France Nouvelle-Calédonie 5 December 1949

Membership by regional associations[edit]

The member states of the WMO are divided into six regional associations. The division is as follows:[22]

Region Number of member states Percentage of total Number of member territories Percentage of total
I 57 31% 0 0%
II 33 18% 2 33%
III 13 7% 0 0%
IV 25 14% 2 33%
V 21 11% 2 33%
VI 50 27% 0 0%
WMO 185 100% 6 100%

The sum of member states in the regional associations is larger than the total number of member states because some nations are members to more than one regional association.

The member states of the World Meteorological Organization divided into the six regional associations, shown on a world map

Region I (Africa)[edit]

Region I consists of the nations of Africa and a few former colonial powers, and has 57 member states and no member territories; these are:[23]

Region II (Asia)[edit]

Region II consists of nations in Asia, having a total of 33 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:[24]

The member territories are:

  • Hong Kong, China
  • Macau, China

Region III (South America)[edit]

Region III consists of the nations of South America, including France (French Guiana is an overseas region of France in South America). It has a total of 13 member states and no member territories. The member states are:[25]

Region IV (North America, Central America, and the Caribbean)[edit]

Region IV consists of the nations of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, including three nations based in Europe with dependencies within the region. It has a total of 25 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:[26]

The two member territories are:

  • British Caribbean Territories
  • Curaçao and Sint Maarten

Region V (South-West Pacific)[edit]

Region V consists of nations in the south-west Pacific. This includes 21 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:[27]

The Cook Islands and Niue are both member states despite the fact that neither is a member state of the United Nations; both are in free association with New Zealand.

The member territories are:

  • French Polynesia
  • New Caledonia

Region VI (Europe)[edit]

Region VI consists mostly of nations in Europe, but also of a few in Western Asia. It has 50 member states and no member territories. These are:[28]

States with membership in more than one region[edit]

A total of 9 member states have membership in more than one region. Two nations are members to four different regions, while seven are members of two regions. These nations, with their regions, are as follows:

  • France (Regions I, III, IV, and VI)
  • United Kingdom (Regions I, IV, V, and VI)
  • Colombia (Regions III and IV)
  • Kazakhstan (Regions II and VI)
  • Netherlands (Regions IV and VI)
  • Portugal (Regions I and VI)
  • Russian Federation (Regions II and IV)
  • Spain (Regions I and VI)
  • Venezuela (Regions III and IV)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Secretary-General". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "President". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  4. ^ a b WMO in Brief – World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Wmo.int (1 January 2013). Retrieved on 22 August 2013.
  5. ^ Convention of the World Meteorological Organization.
  6. ^ WMO Strategic Plan
  7. ^ a b PWMU. "WMO in Brief – World Meteorological Organization (WMO)". wmo.int. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  8. ^ WMO.int
  9. ^ WMO.int
  10. ^ "IPCC Nobel Peace Prize". Nobel Prize Committee. 12 October 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  11. ^ WMO.int
  12. ^ "World Meteorological Day". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  13. ^ WCC-3
  14. ^ WMO membership
  15. ^ a b WMO National services
  16. ^ "Members of the World Meteorological Organization with date of ratification or accession". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Services of Members". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  18. ^ The following statement is given at the WMO official site at the request of the Government of the People's Republic of China: "On 11 October 1947, the representative of the Chinese Government signed the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, her rightful seat in WMO was usurped by the Chiang Kai-shek clique, whose 'ratification' of the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization on 2 March 1951 was illegal and null and void. The rightful seat of the People's Republic of China was restored to her on 25 February 1972." For details, see China and the United Nations.
  19. ^ a b Referred to by the United Nations as "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" due to the Macedonia naming dispute.
  20. ^ Both North and South Vietnam were members of the WMO prior to this date, which is the date of the reunification of Vietnam.
  21. ^ This is the date of the unification of the Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, both of which were WMO members before this date.
  22. ^ "Members of WMO". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  23. ^ "Members of Regional Association I (Africa)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Members of Regional Association II (Asia)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  25. ^ "Members of Regional Association III (South America)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  26. ^ "Members of Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  27. ^ "Members of Regional Association V (South-West Pacific)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  28. ^ "Members of Regional Association IV (Europe)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 

External links[edit]