List of retired Atlantic hurricane names

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Cumulative tracks of retired Atlantic hurricanes

Within the North Atlantic ocean, the name of any significant tropical cyclone can be retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists by the World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee, if it is felt that a storm is so deadly or damaging that the future use of its name would be inappropriate. The practice of retiring significant names was started in 1955 by the United States Weather Bureau, after hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the Northeastern United States and caused a significant amount of damage in the previous year. Initially the names were retired for ten years after which time they might be reintroduced; however, in 1969 this policy was changed to retire the names indefinitely. In 1977, the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration passed control of the naming lists to the Hurricane Committee, who decided that they would retire names at their annual session when required.

The deadliest storm to have its name retired was Hurricane Mitch, which caused over 10,000 fatalities when it struck Central America during October 1998, while the costliest hurricane was Katrina which caused over $108 billion in damage in August 2005.[nb 1] Since the formal start of naming during the 1947 Atlantic hurricane season, an average of one storm name has been retired each season, though many seasons (most recently 2009) have had no storm names retired. The most recent tropical cyclone to have its name retired was Hurricane Ingrid, which caused severe flooding in Mexico.

Background[edit]

By 1947, tropical cyclones developing in the North Atlantic ocean were named by the United States Army Air Forces in private communications between weather centres and aircraft using the Phonetic alphabet.[1][2] This practice continued until September 1950, when the names started to be used publicly after three hurricanes (Baker, Dog, Easy) had occurred simultaneously and caused confusion within the media and the public.[1] Over the next 2 years the public use of the phonetic alphabet to name systems continued before at the 1953 Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference it was decided to start using a new list of female names during that season, as a second phonetic alphabet had been developed.[1][3][4] During the active but mild 1953 Atlantic hurricane season, the names were readily used in the press with few objections recorded, as a result the same names were reused during the next year with only one change: Gilda for Gail. Over the next 6 years a new list of names was developed ahead of each season, before in 1960 forecasters developed four alphabetical sets and repeated them every four years.[5] These new sets followed the example of the typhoon names and excluded names beginning with the letters Q, U, X, Y, and Z, and keeping them to female names only.[5]

In 1955, it was decided to start retiring the names of significant tropical cyclones for ten years after which they might be reintroduced, with the names Carol and Edna reintroduced ahead of the 1965 and 1968 hurricane seasons respectively.[1] At the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference the naming lists were revised after it was decided that the names Carol, Edna, and Hazel amongst others, would be permanently retired because of their importance to the research community.[1][6] It was also decided that any significant hurricane in the future would also be permanently retired.[1][6] Ahead of the 1971 Atlantic hurricane season, ten lists of hurricane names were inaugurated, by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In 1977 it was decided that the World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee (WMO) would control the names used, who subsequently decided that six lists of names would be used in the Atlantic ocean from 1979 onwards with male names included.[1] Since 1979 the same six lists have been used by the United States National Hurricane Center (NHC), with names of significant tropical cyclones retired from the lists permanently and replaced with new names as required at each year's hurricane committee meeting.[1]

Names retired in the 1950s[edit]

Between 1954 and 1959, either eight or nine names were deemed significant enough to be retired for ten years due to their impact, before being permanently retired in 1969.[nb 2] There were no names retired after the 1956 or 1958 seasons, however, it is unknown if the 1959 season had a retiree as while the Hurricane Research Division lists Gracie as a retired name the WMO and NHC do not.[7][8][9] Collectively, these storms resulted in at least 2112 fatalities and over $2.06 billion in damage. The deadliest hurricane was Hurricane Hazel, which killed at least 701 people, while the costliest was Hurricane Diane, which caused US$856 million in damage.

Name Dates SSHS Category Wind speeds Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damages References
Carol August 25 – September 1, 1954 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 957 hPa (28.26 inHg) Northeastern United States, Canada 60 $462 million [10][11][12]
Edna September 2 – 15, 1954 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (190 km/h) 954 hPa (28.17 inHg) New England, Atlantic Canada 21 $42 million [13][14]
Hazel October 5 – 18, 1954 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 937 hPa (27.67 inHg) The Caribbean, Eastern United States, Ontario 701 $381 million [15][16]
Connie August 3 – 15, 1955 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 936 hPa (27.64 inHg) Mid-Atlantic states, New England 25 $40 million [10][17]
Diane August 7 – 21, 1955 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (195 km/h) 969 hPa (28.62 inHg) Mid-Atlantic states, New England 184 $831 million [10][11]
Ione September 10 – 24, 1955 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (195 km/h) 938 hPa (27.70 inHg) North Carolina 7 $88 million [15][17]
Janet September 21 – 30, 1955 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 914 hPa (26.99 inHg) Lesser Antilles, Central America 676 $47.8 million [17]
Audrey June 25 – 29, 1957 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 946 hPa (27.94 inHg) Southern United States 416 $150 million [10][18]
Gracie September 20 – October 2, 1959 Category 4 hurricane 140 mph (220 km/h) 950 hPa (28.06 inHg) The Carolinas, Virginia 22 $14 million [nb 2][19]
9 names References:[nb 3][nb 4] 2112 $2.06 billion

Names retired in the 1960s[edit]

Hurricane Betsy was the first hurricane to have damages exceeding US$1 billion.

In 1960, four rotating lists of names were developed to avoid having to create new lists each year, while the practice of retiring any particularly damaging storm names for 10 years continued, with 11 names deemed significant enough to be retired during the decade.[1][21] At the 1969 Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, it was requested that the names Carol, Edna, and Hazel be permanently retired due to their importance to the research community.[1] This request was subsequently accepted and led to today's practice of retiring names of significant tropical cyclones permanently.[1][6] There were no names retired after the 1962 and the 1968 seasons.[nb 3] Collectively, the 11 systems were responsible for over 9000 fatalities and in excess of US$4.41 billion in damage.

Name Dates SSHS Category Wind speeds Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damages References
Donna August 29 – September 14, 1960 Category 5 hurricane 160 mph (260 km/h) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) The Caribbean, Eastern United States 164 $400 million [22]
Carla September 3 – 16, 1961 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 931 hPa (27.49 inHg) Texas, Louisiana, Midwestern United States 46 $408 million [10][15]
Hattie October 27 – November 1, 1961 Category 5 hurricane 160 mph (260 km/h) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Central America 319 $60.3 million [23][24]
Flora September 26 – October 12, 1963 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) The Caribbean, Florida 7,193 $529 million [25]
Cleo August 20 – September 5, 1964 Category 4 hurricane 155 mph (250 km/h) 950 hPa (28.06 inHg) The Caribbean, Southeastern United States 217 $198 million [26]
Dora August 28 – September 14, 1964 Category 4 hurricane 140 mph (220 km/h) 942 hPa (27.82 inHg) Southeastern United States 5 $250 million [26]
Hilda September 28 – October 4, 1964 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 941 hPa (27.79 inHg) Southern United States 38 $125 million [10][27]
Betsy August 27 – September 14, 1965 Category 4 hurricane 155 mph (250 km/h) 941 hPa (27.79 inHg) Bahamas, Southeastern United States 75 $1.42 billion [10][28]
Inez September 21 – October 11, 1966 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 929 hPa (27.43 inHg) The Caribbean, Florida, Mexico 710 $616 million [29]
Beulah September 5 – 22, 1967 Category 5 hurricane 160 mph (260 km/h) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg) The Caribbean, Mexico, Texas 59 $208 million [30]
Camille August 14 – 22, 1969 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) Cuba, United States Gulf Coast 256 $1.42 billion [10][28][31]
11 names References:[nb 3][nb 4] 9082 $4.41 billion

Names retired in the 1970s[edit]

Name Dates SSHS Category Wind speeds Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damages References
Celia July 31 – August 5, 1970 Category 3 hurricane 125 mph (205 km/h) 945 hPa (27.91 inHg) Cuba, United States Gulf Coast 20 $930 million [32][33]
Agnes June 14 – 25, 1972 Category 1 hurricane 85 mph (140 km/h) 977 hPa (28.85 inHg) Mexico, Cuba, Eastern United States 124 $2.1 billion [28][34]
Carmen August 29 – September 10, 1974 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 928 hPa (27.40 inHg) Central America, Mexico, United States Gulf Coast 8 $162 million [35][36]
Fifi September 14 – 24, 1974 Category 2 hurricane 110 mph (180 km/h) 971 hPa (28.67 inHg) Jamaica, Central America, Mexico >8,000 $1.8 billion [37][38]
Eloise September 13 – 24, 1975 Category 3 hurricane 125 mph (205 km/h) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) The Caribbean, Yucatán Peninsula, Florida 80 $550 million [39]
Anita August 29 – September 4, 1977 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 926 hPa (27.34 inHg Mexico 10 Extensive [40]
Greta September 13–23, 1978 Category 4 hurricane 130 mph (215 km/h) 947 hPa (27.96 inHg The Caribbean, Central America, Mexico 5 26 million [nb 5][41]
David August 25 – September 8, 1979 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 924 hPa (27.29 inHg) The Caribbean, United States East coast 2,068 $1.54 billion [41][42]
Frederic August 29 – September 15, 1979 Category 4 hurricane 135 mph (215 km/h) 943 hPa (27.85 inHg) The Caribbean, Southeastern United States 12 $2.3 billion [42]
9 names References:[nb 3][nb 4] 10,527 $9.41 billion

Names retired in the 1980s[edit]

Hurricane Gilbert at its peak intensity.

After control of the naming scheme was turned over to the World Meteorological Organization's Hurricane Committee during the mid-1970s, the 1980s marked the least prolific decade in terms of the number of retired storms with 7 names warranting removal. Between them the 7 systems caused over $20.9 billion in damage while over 893 people lost their lives. Hurricane Gilbert was the most intense tropical cyclone during the decade with a pressure of 888 hPa (26.22 inHg), which also made it the most intense tropical cyclone on record until Hurricane Wilma surpassed it during 2005.[43] No names were retired by the Hurricane Committee after the 1981, 1982, 1984, 1986, or 1987 seasons, which was the most of any decade since the introduction of the practice of retiring hurricane names.

Name Dates SSHS Category Wind speeds Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damages References
Allen July 31 – August 11, 1980 Category 5 hurricane 190 mph (305 km/h) 899 hPa (26.55 inHg) The Caribbean, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, South Texas 269 $1.24 billion [41][44][45]
Alicia August 15 – 21, 1983 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 963 hPa (28.44 inHg) Eastern Texas, Louisiana 21 $2 billion [46]
Elena August 28 – September 4, 1985 Category 3 hurricane 125 mph (205 km/h) 953 hPa (28.14 inHg) Cuba, United States Gulf Coast 4 $1.25 billion [47]
Gloria September 16 – October 2, 1985 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg) United States East Coast, Atlantic Canada 9 $900 million [47]
Gilbert September 8 – 19, 1988 Category 5 hurricane 185 mph (295 km/h) 888 hPa (26.22 inHg) Venezuela, Central America, Hispaniola, Mexico 318 $5 billion [33][48]
Joan October 11 – November 2, 1988 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 932 hPa (27.52 inHg) Lesser Antilles, Colombia, Venezuela, Central America 216 $2 billion [48]
Hugo September 9 – 25, 1989 Category 5 hurricane 160 mph (260 km/h) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg) The Caribbean, United States East Coast 56 $8.5 billion [28][49]
7 Names References:[nb 3][nb 4] 893 $20.9 billion

Names retired in the 1990s[edit]

Damage after Hurricane Andrew in Miami.

During the 1990s, the Atlantic Ocean moved into its active era, which led to more tropical cyclones forming during the hurricane seasons. This decade featured the deadliest tropical cyclone to have its name retired after Hurricane Mitch killed over 11,000 people in Central America. A total of 15 names were retired in this decade, with seven of those in two consecutive years (1995 and 1996).

1993, 1994 and 1997 had no retired names.

Name Dates SSHS Category Wind speeds Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damages References
Diana August 4 – 9, 1990 Category 2 hurricane 100 mph (165 km/h) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Yucatán Peninsula, central Mexico 96 Extensive [50]
Klaus October 3 – 9, 1990 Category 1 hurricane 80 mph (130 km/h) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Lesser Antilles, The Bahamas, Southeast United States 11 $1 million [50][51]
Bob August 16 – 20, 1991 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 950 hPa (28.06 inHg) United States East Coast, Canada 17 $1.5 billion [52]
Andrew August 16 – 28, 1992 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 922 hPa (27.23 inHg) The Bahamas, Florida, United States Gulf Coast 65 $26.5 billion [28][53]
Luis August 27 – September 11, 1995 Category 4 hurricane 140 mph (220 km/h) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Bermuda 19 $2.5 billion [54]
Marilyn September 12 – 22, 1995 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 949 hPa (28.02 inHg) The Caribbean, Bermuda 8 $1.5 billion [28][54]
Opal September 27 – October 6, 1995 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 916 hPa (27.05 inHg) Guatemala, Yucatán Peninsula, Eastern United States 59 $514 million [28][54]
Roxanne October 7 – 21, 1995 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 956 hPa (28.23 inHg) Mexico 14 $1.5 billion [54]
Cesar July 24 – 29, 1996 Category 1 hurricane 85 mph (140 km/h) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Central America, Mexico 112 $203 million [41][55][56][57][58]
Fran August 23 – September 8, 1996 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (195 km/h) 946 hPa (27.94 inHg) Eastern United States, Toronto 26 $4.16 billion [10][28]
Hortense September 3 – 16, 1996 Category 4 hurricane 140 mph (220 km/h) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) The Caribbean, Atlantic Canada 39 $158 million [59][60][61]
Georges September 15 – October 1, 1998 Category 4 hurricane 155 mph (250 km/h) 937 hPa (27.67 inHg) The Caribbean, United States Gulf Coast 604 $9.72 billion [28][62][63][64][65][66]
Mitch October 22 – November 5, 1998 Category 5 hurricane 180 mph (285 km/h) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, South Florida 11,000 $6.2 billion [67][68][69]
Floyd September 7 – 19, 1999 Category 4 hurricane 155 mph (250 km/h) 921 hPa (27.20 inHg) The Bahamas, Eastern United States, Atlantic Canada 56 $6.9 billion [28][70]
Lenny November 13 – 23, 1999 Category 4 hurricane 155 mph (250 km/h) 933 hPa (27.55 inHg) Colombia, Puerto Rico, Leeward Islands 17 $686 million [70][71][72][73][74][75]
15 Names References:[nb 3][nb 4] 12,144 $62 billion

Names retired in the 2000s[edit]

Hurricane Charley making landfall on August 13, 2004 at its peak intensity.

After the Atlantic basin had moved into the warm phase of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation during the mid-1990s, the 2000s marked the most prolific decade in terms of the number of retired storms, with 24 names warranting removal.[nb 3] The decade featured one of the costliest tropical cyclones on record, Hurricane Katrina, which inflicted roughly US$108 billion in damage across the Gulf Coast of the United States.[28] Katrina was also the deadliest hurricane to strike the United States since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane.[10] After causing approximately US$9 billion in damage, Tropical Storm Allison became the first tropical storm in this basin to have its name retired, while subtropical storms started to be named during 2002.[76][77] Hurricane Jeanne was the deadliest storm during the decade and was responsible for over 3000 deaths when it impacted Haiti and other parts of the Caribbean.[78] During October 2005, Hurricane Wilma became the most intense tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin on record, with a central pressure of 882 hPa (26.05 inHg).[43] There were no retired names after the 2006 and 2009 hurricane seasons.[8] Collectively, the 24 systems were responsible for over 7500 fatalities and in excess of US$280 billion in damage.

Name Dates SSHS Category Wind speeds Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damages References
Keith September 28 – October 6, 2000 Category 4 hurricane 140 mph (220 km/h) 939 hPa (27.73 inHg) Central America 56 $319 million [41][79][80][81]
Allison June 4 – 18, 2001 Tropical Storm 60 mph (95 km/h) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Texas, Louisiana, Southern United States 50 $9 billion [28][82]
Iris October 4 – 9, 2001 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 948 hPa (27.99 inHg) Hispaniola, Jamaica, Belize, Guatemala, Mexico 31 $140 million [82][83]
Michelle October 29 - November 6, 2001 Category 4 hurricane 140 mph (220 km/h) 933 hPa (27.55 inHg) Central America, Jamaica, Cuba, Bahamas 17 $2 billion [64][82]
Isidore September 14 - 27, 2002 Category 3 hurricane 125 mph (205 km/h) 934 hPa (27.58 inHg) Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana 17 $1.3 billion [84][85]
Lili September 21 - October 4, 2002 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 938 hPa (27.70 inHg) Windward Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Louisiana 15 $925 million [28][84]
Fabian August 25 – September 8, 2003 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 939 hPa (27.73 inHg) Bermuda 8 $300 million [86]
Isabel September 6 - 20, 2003 Category 5 hurricane 165 mph (270 km/h) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Greater Antilles, Bahamas, Eastern United States, Ontario 50 $5.37 billion [28][86]
Juan September 24 – 29, 2003 Category 2 hurricane 105 mph (170 km/h) 969 hPa (28.61 inHg) Atlantic Canada 5 $200 million [86][87]
Charley August 9 - 15, 2004 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 941 hPa (27.79 inHg) Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Florida, The Carolinas 40 $15.1 billion [88]
Frances August 24 – September 10, 2004 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) The Caribbean, Eastern United States, Ontario 49 $9.85 billion [28][89][90][91]
Ivan September 2 – 24, 2004 Category 5 hurricane 165 mph (270 km/h) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) The Caribbean, Venezuela, United States Gulf Coast 124 $23.3 billion [28][90][92]
Jeanne September 13 – 28, 2004 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (195 km/h) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) The Caribbean, Eastern United States 3,035 $7.66 billion [28][41][78][90]
Dennis July 4 – 13, 2005 Category 4 hurricane 150 mph (240 km/h) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Greater Antilles, Southeastern United States 89 $4 billion [28][43][93]
Katrina August 23 – 30, 2005 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 902 hPa (26.64 inHg) Bahamas, United States Gulf Coast 1,836 $108 billion [94]
Rita September 18 – 26, 2005 Category 5 hurricane 180 mph (290 km/h) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) Cuba, United States Gulf Coast 62 $12 billion [95]
Stan October 1 – 5, 2005 Category 1 hurricane 80 mph (130 km/h) 977 hPa (28.85 inHg) Mexico, Central America 1,668 $3.96 billion [41][96]
Wilma October 15 – 26, 2005 Category 5 hurricane 185 mph (295 km/h) 882 hPa (26.05 inHg) Greater Antilles, Central America, Florida 23 $29.3 billion [43][97][98][99]
Dean August 13 – 23, 2007 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) The Caribbean, Central America 45 $1.78 billion [41][100]
Felix August 31 – September 5, 2007 Category 5 hurricane 175 mph (280 km/h) 929 hPa (27.43 inHg) Nicaragua, Honduras 130 $720 million [100][101][102][103]
Noel October 28 – November 2, 2007 Category 1 hurricane 80 mph (130 km/h) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Greater Antilles, Eastern United States, Atlantic Canada 163 $580 million [100]
Gustav August 25 – September 4, 2008 Category 4 hurricane 155 mph (250 km/h) 941 hPa (27.79 inHg) Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, United States Gulf Coast 153 $6.61 billion [28][104]
Ike September 1 – 14, 2008 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Greater Antilles, Texas, Louisiana, Midwestern United States 195 $37.5 billion [28][104][105]
Paloma November 5 – 10, 2008 Category 4 hurricane 145 mph (230 km/h) 944 hPa (27.88 inHg) Cayman Islands, Cuba None $300 million [104]
24 names References:[nb 3][nb 4] 7,873 $280 billion

Names retired in the 2010s[edit]

So far during the current decade, five tropical cyclone names have been retired. Collectively, these systems have killed at least 413 people and caused at least $86.6 billion worth of damage. Hurricane Igor is currently the strongest storm to have its name retired, while Hurricane Sandy is currently the costliest and deadliest storm of the 2010s (and second costliest of all time).

Name Dates SSHS Category Wind speeds Pressure Areas affected Deaths Damages References
Igor September 8 – 21, 2010 Category 4 hurricane 155 mph (250 km/h) 924 hPa (27.29 inHg) Bermuda, Newfoundland 4 $200 million [106]
Tomas October 29 – November 7, 2010 Category 2 hurricane 100 mph (155 km/h) 982 hPa (29.00 inHg) Caribbean 44 $348 million [107]
Irene August 21 – 28, 2011 Category 3 hurricane 120 mph (195 km/h) 942 hPa (27.82 inHg) Caribbean, Bahamas, United States East Coast, Eastern Canada 56 $16.6 billion [108][109][110]
Sandy October 22 – 29, 2012 Category 3 hurricane 115 mph (185 km/h) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Caribbean, Bahamas, United States East Coast, Eastern Canada 286 $68 billion [111][112]
Ingrid September 12 – 17, 2013 Category 1 hurricane 85 mph (140 km/h) 983 hPa (29.03 inHg) Mexico 23 $1.5 billion
5 Names References:[nb 3][nb 4] 413 $87 billion

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Unless otherwise noted, all of the damage totals in this article are in the original year USD.
  2. ^ a b NOAA's Hurricane Research Division lists Gracie as a retired name, while the National Hurricane Center and the World Meteorological Organization do not.[7][8][9]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i References for the retired names.[7][8][9]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Reference for dates, season, wind speeds and pressure.[20]
  5. ^ The World Meteorological Organization lists Greta as a retired name, while the NOAA's National Hurricane Center and Hurricane Research Division do not.[7][8][9]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Dorst, Neal; Hurricane Research Division; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (pptx). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. p. Slides 62 – 72. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ Roth, David M (January 13, 2010). "Louisiana Hurricane History". Southern Region Headquarters (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service). p. 36. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  3. ^ United States Weather Bureau (March 1952). "What's in a name? - The Phonetic Alphabet goes International". Topics of the Weather Bureau (United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Central Library Data Imaging Project) 11 (3): 36 (48). Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  4. ^ Padgett, Gary (September 24, 2007). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary July 2007". Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Padgett, Gary (November 30, 2007). Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone summary: August 2007 (Report). Archived from the original on October 7, 2010. http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2008/summ0708.htm. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
  6. ^ a b c Reuters (June 1, 1969). "It's time (June) to match for Anna...". The Daily Gleaner (Kingston, Jamaica). p. 2.  – via The Newspaper Archive (subscription required)
  7. ^ a b c d Padgett, Gary; Beven, John L; Free, James Lewis; Delgado, Sandy; Hurricane Research Division; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (May 23, 2013). "Subject: B3) What storm names have been retired?". Tropical Cyclone Frequently Asked Questions:. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Retrieved December 2, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e National Hurricane Center (2012). "Tropical Cyclone Naming History and Retired Names". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d RA IV Hurricane Committee (May 30, 2013). "Chapter 9: Tropical Cyclone Names". Regional Association IV: Hurricane Operational Plan 2013. World Meteorological Organization. pp. 98–99. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Blake et all 2011; Table 2: Mainland U.S. tropical cyclones causing 25 or greater deaths 1851-2010. p7
  11. ^ a b Blake, Eric S; Rappaport, Edward N; Jarell, Jerry D; Landsea, Christopher W; Tropical Prediction Center; National Hurricane Center (August 2005). The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2004 (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-4). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 8. Archived from the original on December 2, 2012. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/nwstechmemos/TechMemoTPC%234.pdf. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  12. ^ Canadian Hurricane Centre (September 14, 2010). 1954-Carol (Storm Impact Summaries). Environment Canada. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. http://www.ec.gc.ca/Hurricane/default.asp?lang=En&n=BBF632B3-1. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  13. ^ Davies, Walter R (1954). "Hurricanes of 1954" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (American Meteorological Society) 82 (12): 370–373. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1954)082<0370:HO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1520-0493. Retrieved September 10, 2011. 
  14. ^ National Weather Service Forecast Office in Boston, Massachusetts (December 5, 2005). "Hurricane Edna". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c Hebert, Paul J; Taylor, Glenn; National Hurricane Center (January 1983). The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Hurricanes of This Century (and Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts) (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TPC-18). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 5. Archived from the original on December 2, 2012. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/general/lib/lib1/nhclib/nwstechmemos/techmemo18.pdf. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
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