Loei Province

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Loei
เลย
Province
Loeip.jpg
Official seal of Loei
Seal
Motto: City of the Sea of Mountains, Coldest Place in Siam
Map of Thailand highlighting Loei Province
Map of Thailand highlighting Loei Province
Country  Thailand
Capital Loei town
Government
 • Governor Viroj Jivarangsan (since  2013)
Area
 • Total 11,424.6 km2 (4,411.1 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 14th
Population (2013)
 • Total 632,205
 • Rank Ranked 40th
 • Density 55.33/km2 (143.3/sq mi)
 • Density rank Ranked 72nd
HDI
 • HDI (2009) 0.731 (medium) (42nd)
Time zone Thailand Standard Time (UTC+7)
Area code(s) 042
ISO 3166 code TH-42
Vehicle registration เลย
Website http://www.loei.go.th/

Loei (Thai: เลย, pronounced [lɤ̄ːj]) is one of the most sparsely populated provinces (changwat) of Thailand, located in the North-East. Neighboring provinces are (from east clockwise) Nong Khai, Udon Thani, Nongbua Lamphu, Khon Kaen, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok. In the north it borders Xaignabouli and Vientiane Province of Laos.

The city of Loei is surrounded by mountain ranges whose summits are covered by fog and are abundant with various kinds of flora. The best known mountains in the province are Phu Kradueng, Phu Luang and Phu Ruea.

Geography[edit]

The province is covered with mountains, such as Phu Kradueng and Phu Ruea, while the capital Loei is located in a fertile basin. The Loei River, which flows through the province, is a tributary of the Mekong, which forms part of the northern boundary of the province with neighboring Laos. Phu Thap Buek, the highest mountain of the Phetchabun Range, is located within the province.[1]

Although temperatures in the hot season (April–May) can be more than 40 degrees Celsius, the province is the only one in Thailand which regularly drops below 0 degrees in the evenings in the cold season (December–January).

The mountain of Phu Kradueng is part of the Phu Kradueng National Park. Other national parks include Phu Hin Rong Kla, Phu Ruea, Phu Pha Man and Phu Suan Sai (also known as Na Haeo).

Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the province.

Phra That Si Song Rak in Amphoe Dan Sai

The western part of the province reaches the southern end of the Luang Prabang Range mountain area of the Thai highlands.[2]

History[edit]

According to tradition, Loei was founded by people from Chiang Saen. Khun Pha Muang founded the village of Dan-kwa, and Bang Klang Hao founded Dan-sai. Drought and disease later led to the villagers move to the site of today's Loei. In 1907 King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) created the province of Loei.

Symbols[edit]

The seal of the province shows the stupa at Phra That Si Song Rak, which was built in 1560 by King Maha Chakrapat of the Ayutthaya kingdom and King Chai Chetha of Lan Xang as a symboil of friendship between the two kingdoms. The provincial tree is the Khasi Pine (Pinus kesiya).

The province's slogan is: City of the Sea of Mountains, Coldest Place in Siam, with Beautiful Flowers of Three Seasons.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map of Amphoe

The province is subdivided into 14 districts (amphoe). The districts are further subdivided into 89 subdistricts (tambon) and 839 villages (muban).

  1. Mueang Loei
  2. Na Duang
  3. Chiang Khan
  4. Pak Chom
  5. Dan Sai
  6. Na Haeo
  7. Phu Ruea
  1. Tha Li
  2. Wang Saphung
  3. Phu Kradueng
  4. Phu Luang
  5. Pha Khao
  6. Erawan
  7. Nong Hin

Climate[edit]

Loei's temperature is comfortably cool, with beautiful geographical surroundings, as well as unique cultures and traditions. In the cool season it can get decidedly chilly: it is one of the few places in Thailand that ever gets down to zero degrees Celsius.

Climate data for Loei (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
(86.2)
32.9
(91.2)
35.1
(95.2)
35.9
(96.6)
33.8
(92.8)
33.0
(91.4)
32.3
(90.1)
32.0
(89.6)
31.6
(88.9)
31.0
(87.8)
30.2
(86.4)
28.9
(84)
32.23
(90.02)
Average low °C (°F) 14.9
(58.8)
17.0
(62.6)
20.0
(68)
22.7
(72.9)
23.7
(74.7)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.1
(73.6)
21.8
(71.2)
18.5
(65.3)
14.9
(58.8)
20.73
(69.3)
Rainfall mm (inches) 4.4
(0.173)
11.9
(0.469)
32.7
(1.287)
99.6
(3.921)
177.3
(6.98)
133.8
(5.268)
200.7
(7.902)
273.2
(10.756)
203.5
(8.012)
70.3
(2.768)
18.1
(0.713)
8.6
(0.339)
1,234.1
(48.588)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 2 3 5 11 18 17 18 19 20 12 3 1 129
 % humidity 68 63 61 67 77 77 78 80 83 81 75 71 73.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 257.3 240.8 232.5 237.0 210.8 168.0 158.1 145.7 156.0 201.5 216.0 244.9 2,468.6
Source: Thai Meteorological Department (Normal 1981-2010), (Avg. rainy days 1961-1990)

Tourism[edit]

Chiang Khan
Phurua.jpg

Chaopho Kut Pong Shrine and the City Pillar Shrine (ศาลเจ้าพ่อกุดป่องและศาลหลักเมือง)The city pillar was made of the golden shower wood elaborately carved into a lotus shape at its top and gilded with gold leaf on black lacquer with a height of 139 centimetres (55 in).

Chaloem Phra Kiat Public Park, Pa Loeng Yai (สวนสาธารณะเฉลิมพระเกียรติฯ ป่าเลิงใหญ่) It is a 2-rai public park by the Loei River. There is a decorative garden with flowers and decorative plants.

Office of the Loei Tourism Coordination Centre (อาคารที่ทำการศูนย์ประสานงานการท่องเที่ยวจังหวัดเลย) was previously the City Hall and Mueang Loei District Office. The Loei Provincial Council of Culture collected the king's chair at this place. The Fine Arts Department has registered it as a national ancient monument for preservation.

Loei Cultural Centre (ศูนย์วัฒนธรรมจังหวัดเลย) It is a two-storey building, collecting and publicising information on Loei such as religion, traditions, and ways of living.

Wat Tham Pha Pu or Phiang Din cave (วัดถ้ำผาปู่ หรือ ถ้ำเพียงดิน), houses the remains of Luangpu Khamdi Paphaso, who discovered this place. The temple is a grand cave within a stone mountain. There are Buddha images enshrined in the cave, as well as stalagmites and stalactites.

Phu Pha Lom Forest Park (วนอุทยานภูผาล้อม) It is composed of steep limestone mountains with various pointed summits similar to a wall surrounding the virgin forest in the middle. There are various kinds of plants, herbs, sightseeing points, and caves as well as, Bo Nam Sap or Nam Phut, which is a sacred seepage pond.

Upper Huai Nam Man and Huai Krathing Reservoir (อ่างเก็บน้ำห้วยน้ำหมานตอนบนและห้วยกระทิง) an earthen dam with a capacity of 26 million cubic metres, covering an area of 1,500 rai with a crest of 800 metres. It was constructed for irrigation purposes.

Si Khun Mueang temple (วัดศรีคุณเมือง) This temple is a collection venue of Lanna and Lan Chang arts presenting at the ubosot whose roof is in many layers reflecting the Lanna style of art. There are also many objects of art such as a carved Buddha image gilded with gold leaf on black lacquer in the forgiving posture of the Lan Chang style.

Kaeng Khutkhu (แก่งคุดคู้) is a large cataract in the middle of the Mekong River.

Phu Khwai Ngoen Buddha's footprint (พระพุทธบาทภูควายเงิน) The Buddha’s footprint is 120 centimetres long and 65 centimetres wide, enshrined on a whetstone and was registered as a national ancient monument in 1935.

Phu Khok Ngio Buddha statue (พระใหญ่ภูคกงิ้ว) It is a walking Buddha image in the blessing posture, cast of fibre and golden resin combined. It was cast by the Second Army Area Command and the people as a form of merit making for the king and queen.

Thai Dam Cultural Village (หมู่บ้านวัฒนธรรมไทยดำ) Thai Dam people migrated from Chiang Khwang Town, Laos in 1905 to settle at Ban Na Pa Nat. At present, the Thai Dam culture is still preserved.

Crown Princess's Sirindhorn Art Centre (ศูนย์ศิลป์สิรินธร) It is a venue displaying beautiful paintings of students who have gained popularity at both national and international levels. Moreover, it is a source of knowledge on arts and culture, comprising both permanent and rotating exhibition halls, an arts training building.

Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary (เขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าภูหลวง) Phu Luang means a large mountain or the "mountain of the king". On the east of Phu Luang, dinosaur footprints on the rock, aged more than 120 million years, were discovered. The most distinguished ones on Phu Luang are Pinus merkusii and Kesiya pine forests, savanna on plains, mounds, and stone terraces.

Phuluang wildlife sanctuary

Pha Ya cave (ถ้ำผายา) is inside Wat Tham Pha Ya at Ban Mai Santi Tham, Tambon Na Dok Kham. Inside the cave is a flock of millions of insect-eating bats.

Ban Lek Nai Pa Yai Project, Pha Nang – Pha Koeng (โครงการบ้านเล็กในป่าใหญ่ ผานาง – ผาเกิ้ง) is a project under an initiative of Queen Sirikit.

Suan Hin Pha Ngam or Thailand’s Kunming (สวนหินผางาม หรือ คุนหมิงเมืองไทย) It is a limestone garden aged around 230-280 million years, occurring from the aggregation of beach deposits. Then, an uplift of the earth's crust, together with millions of years of natural rot have made this mountain strangely beautiful, similar to the stone garden in Kunming, Yunnan China.

Mahoran Cave (ถ้ำมโหฬาร) It is a large cave whose entrance enshrines a Buddha image in subduing Mara posture. The area within the cave is quite large consisting of stalactites and stalagmites, as well as, caves in smaller sizes. A Buddha's footprint was also found on the wall of the cave.

Phothisat Cave (ถ้ำโพธิสัตว์) or Thailand's Guilin is within the compound of Wat Tham Phothisat. It is a complex cave.

Piang Din Waterfall (น้ำตกเพียงดิน) is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) beyond Suan Hin Pha Ngam. The waterfall is at the end of the asphalt road.

Phu Kradueng National Park (อุทยานแห่งชาติภูกระดึง) It is a popular natural attraction of Thailand due to its abundance of natural resources, comprising various types of ecological systems and geography. The distinguished characteristic of this national park is that it is a sandstone mountain with a wide plain summit, whose shape is similar to a leaf of the Elephant ear or a heart. Sites in the park are as follows:

Phu Kradueng
  • Nok Aen cliff (ผานกแอ่น) It is a small stone terrace with pine trees standing at the cliff's edge. It is a beautiful sunrise spot overlooking the scenery of the grass field and mountain range.
  • Lom Sak cliff (ผาหล่มสัก) It is a wide stone terrace with a large pine tree near an overhanging cliff. It is a place where the sunset can be the most clearly viewed.
  • Tat Hong waterfall (น้ำตกตาดฮ้อง) is a waterfall within the compound of the national park. When falling from the cliff to the basin, it creates a loud and resonant sound of water. Therefore, it is called "Namtok Tat Hong".

Phu Ruea National Park (อุทยานแห่งชาติภูเรือ) Its special characteristic is an overhanging cliff in the similar shape as a prow of a junk. It is also considered as the coolest national park of the country. Sites in the national park are as follows:

Decho Viewpoint (จุดชมทิวทัศน์เดโช) is a viewspot for the sunrise. On a nice-weather-day, there are various mountains of Loei.

Lon Noi cliff (ผาโหล่นน้อย) It is a beautiful place to admire the sunrise. From this spot, Phu Luang, Phu Pha Sat, Phu Khrang and a sea of complex mountain ranges can be seen.

Sapthong or Kulap cliff (ผาซับทอง หรือ ผากุหลาบ) It is a steep cliff with seepage full of water throughout the year where there is plenty of golden yellow lichen.

Huai Phai waterfall (น้ำตกห้วยไผ่) This waterfall is dropping from a steep cliff with an approximate height of 30 metres. The water from this waterfall is also utilised to produce pipe water in Amphoe Phu Ruea.

Phu Ruea peak (ยอดภูเรือ) is the highest spot in the national park. Within its compound is a stone terrace and grass field mixed with pine forest comprising Pinus merkusii which is naturally grown and Kesiya pine which is planted.

Phrathat Si Song Rak (พระธาตุศรีสองรัก) Its architecture is in the Lan Chang style. Phrathat, a stupa containing the Buddha’s relics, is 19.19 metres high, 10.89 metres wide with a square base of 12 redented corners. Moreover, within the compound of the temple is enshrined a Buddha image canopied by a seven-headed Naga in the Tibetan style of art.

Neramit Wipatsana temple (วัดเนรมิตวิปัสสนา) Both the Ubosot and Chedi are beautifully constructed of laterite. The large Ubosot is interiorly decorated in resemblance to the great temples of Bangkok. Moreover, a replica of Phra Phutthachinnarat is enshrined as the main image.

Phi Ta Khon Museum (พิพิธภัณฑ์บ้านผีตาโขน) It is an educational attraction for those interested in the Bun Luang and Phi Ta Khon Festivals. Besides, there are an Ubosot reflecting the skills of local craftsmen, as well as, a replica of Phrathat Si Song Rak, including Bun Luang Festival and Phi Ta Khon are organised.

Pho Chai Na Phueng temple (วัดโพธิ์ชัยนาพึง) Enshrined within the abbot’s cell is the Prachao Ong Saen Buddha image, an ancient image of the town for many generations. At the outside of the Ubosot are paintings which were later created in 1916. It can be considered as a very precious ancient monument and object of Loei province.

Phu suan sai National Park (อุทยานแห่งชาติภูสวนทราย) Most of the forests are dry evergreen forests mixed with deciduous trees. Along the high area are hill evergreen forests which are also a natural boundary between Thailand and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Sites within the national park are as follows:

Nahaeo district

Khing waterfall (น้ำตกคิ้ง) The waterfall comprises many rock tiers. At this spot, the government has constructed a royal residence for Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn who visited this place on 12 February 1991.

Chang Tok waterfall (น้ำตกช้างตก) is located 500 metres higher than Namtok Khing which is also along the Phrae River. It is steeper than the lower one.

Wang Tat waterfall (น้ำตกวังตาด) is situated 1.5 kilometres above Namtok Chang Tok and located along the Phrae River as well.

Tat Hueang or Thai-Lao waterfall (น้ำตกเหืองหรือน้ำตกไทย-ลาว ) is along the Hueang River, consisting of 3 different tiers with a height of approximately 50 metres. There is water throughout the year.

Pha Khao waterfall (น้ำตกผาค้อ) is along the Heuang River, a border between Thailand and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

Four direction rock (หินสี่ทิศ) On its south are four rocks rising up in the middle of the tropical evergreen forest. Local people usually go up to pay respect at this place once every three years, thus it is called “Song Pi Ham, Sam Pi Khrop”.

Kuai Lo rock (หินก่วยหล่อ) It is a sandstone whose shape is similar to a mushroom bud rising in the middle of the tropical evergreen forest.

1408 hill Viewpoint (จุดชมวิวเนิน 1408) It is the highest viewpoint and centre of the national park. It is also a beautiful viewpoint to see the sunrise.

1255 hill Viewpoint (จุดชมวิวเนิน 1255) is a short-distant viewpoint where the scenery of Ban Huai Nam Phak below, as well as, Phu Soi Dao and Phu Wiang in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic can be witnessed.

Phrathat Satcha (พระธาตุสัจจะ) Components of Phrathat Satcha comprise a base of blooming lotus with 3 tiers of petals with a height of approximately 1 metre around it.

The Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge across the Hueang River (สะพานมิตรภาพน้ำเหืองไทย-ลาว) It is a bridge crossing the Hueang River and connecting between Thailand and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

phu suan sai national park

Local products[edit]

There are various kinds of local products of Loei such as sweet tamarind, kunchiang (Chinese pork sausage), mu phaen (dried pork slices), glacéd coconut, souvenirs related to the Phi Ta Khon Festival, quilts, silk and cotton fabric. For local fabrics, visit Ban Kang Pla, which offers Loei fabric, a unique product of the province. If you love rattan furniture and utensils, visit Ban Na Kraseng, Tha Li district.

Festivals[edit]

Dok Fai Ban Makham Wan Mueang Loei Red Cross Fair (งานกาชาดดอกฝ้ายบาน มะขามหวานเมืองเลย) held in front of Loei City Hall during 1–9 February every year. Parades from various districts, as well as cultural performances are highlights of the fair.

Dok Fai Ban Red Cross Fair

Thai–Lao Songkran Festival (งานประเพณีสงกรานต์ไทย-ลาว) held in amphoe Tha Li during 12–15 April of every year. Large numbers of Lao people participate in the activities of the festival.

Bun Bang Fai Lan Festival (งานประเพณีบุญบั้งไฟล้าน) held within the compound of Wat Erawan Phatthanaram, amphoe Erawan on the full moon of the 6th lunar month or during May of every year. It is the biggest festival of Loei. There is a contest of rocket processions from various communities.

Phrathat Si Song Rak Fair (งานนมัสการพระธาตุศรีสองรัก) an annual event organised on the full moon of the 6th lunar month, around the end of April until early May to celebrate Phrathat Si Song Rak, a significant place of worship of the town.

Bun Luang Festival and Phi Ta Khon (งานประเพณีบุญหลวง และการละเล่นผีตาโขน) held annually in amphoe Dan Sai on Saturday–Sunday after the full moon day of the 6th lunar month, and after paying respect to Phrathat Si Song Rak. Phi Ta Khon is a local activity of amphoe Dan Sai and amphoe Na Haeo, relating to the belief and faith in Buddhism and the spirit of ancestors. Phi Ta Khon parades are organised in the Bun Luang Festival, an annual local merit-making ceremony. On the first day, the Phra Upakhut procession proceeds from the Man River to Wat Phon Chai and on the next day, it enters the town, while the Phi Ta Khon participants throw their costumes and accoutrements into the Man River. After that, a series of all 13 chapters of the Great Birth Sermon will be read.

Chiang Khan's End of Buddhist Lent Festival (งานประเพณีออกพรรษาอำเภอเชียงคาน) organised in front of Chiang Khan District Office on the full moon day of the 11th lunar month every year. There is the Prasat Phueng procession, long-boat races, Ruea Kap races, illuminated boat contest, Tak Bat Devo, and various local cultural shows and entertainment in the festival.

Chiang Khan

Sea of Fog and Beautiful Flower Blossom on Phu Ruea (Winter Flowers Fair, Amphoe Phu Ruea) (เทศกาลหมอก ดอกไม้งาม บานสะพรั่งภูเรือ) is held on the grounds in front of Phu Ruea District Office during the New Year Festival, around 31 December–3 January every year. Activities in the festival comprise a temperate plant fair, floral float parade, temperate flowers and decorative plants contests, Mae Khaning evening party, dances in the winter breeze.

Phi Ta Khon Mask Festival

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phu Thap Buek - Cabbage farms
  2. ^ ดร.กระมล ทองธรรมชาติ และคณะ, สังคมศึกษา ศาสนาและวัฒนธรรม ม.1, สำนักพิมพ์ อักษรเจริญทัศน์ อจท. จำกัด, 2548, หน้า 24-25

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 17°29′12″N 101°43′10″E / 17.48667°N 101.71944°E / 17.48667; 101.71944