M. H. Abrams
|Meyer Howard Abrams|
July 23, 1912 |
Long Branch, New Jersey
|Other names||Mike Abrams|
|Known for||The Norton Anthology of English Literature, The Mirror and the Lamp|
Meyer (Mike) Howard Abrams (born July 23, 1912), usually cited as M. H. Abrams, is an American literary critic, known for works on Romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp. Under Abrams' editorship, the Norton Anthology of English Literature became the standard text for undergraduate survey courses across the U.S. and a major trendsetter in literary canon formation.
Abrams was born the son of Eastern European Jewish immigrants in Long Branch, New Jersey. The son of a house painter and the first in his family to go to college, he entered Harvard University as an undergraduate in 1930. He went into English because, he says, "there weren't jobs in any other profession, so I thought I might as well enjoy starving, instead of starving while doing something I didn't enjoy." After earning his baccalaureate in 1934, Abrams won a Henry fellowship to the University of Cambridge, where his tutor was I.A. Richards. He returned to Harvard for graduate school in 1935 and received his Masters' degree in 1937 and his PhD in 1940. During World War II, he served at the Psycho-Acoustics Laboratory at Harvard. He describes his work as solving the problem of voice communications in a noisy military environment by establishing military codes that are highly audible and inventing selection tests for personnel who had a superior ability to recognize sound in a noisy background. In 1945 Abrams became a professor at Cornell University. The literary critics Harold Bloom and E. D. Hirsch, and the novelist Thomas Pynchon were among his students. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1963. As of March 4, 2008, he was Class of 1916 Professor of English Emeritus there.
The Mirror and the Lamp
In a powerful contrast, Abrams shows that until the Romantics, literature was usually understood as a mirror, reflecting the real world, in some kind of mimesis; but for the Romantics, writing was more like a lamp: the light of the writer's inner soul spilled out to illuminate the world.
The Norton Anthology of English Literature
Abrams was not only the general editor of The Norton Anthology, he was the editor of "The Romantic Period (1798-1832)" in that anthology, and he evaluated writers and their reputations. In his introduction to George Gordon, Lord Byron, he emphasized how Byronism relates to Nietzsche's idea of the superman. In the introduction to Percy Bysshe Shelley, Abrams said, "The tragedy of Shelley's short life was that intending always the best, he brought disaster and suffering upon himself and those he loved."
To be clear, this anthology of "English" literature does not include Anglophone writers from places such as Canada, but it does include writers from various places in the British Isles, for instance, William Butler Yeats, who was appointed a senator in the Irish Free State.
Classification of literary theories
Literary theories, Abrams argues, can be divided into four main groups:
- Mimetic Theories (interested in the relationship between the Work and the Universe)
- Pragmatic Theories (interested in the relationship between the Work and the Audience)
- Expressive Theories (interested in the relationship between the Work and the Artist)
- Objective Theories (interested in close reading of the Work)
- The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (1953) ISBN 978-0-19-501471-6
- The Poetry of Pope: a selection (1954) ISBN 978-0-88295-067-9
- Literature and Belief: English Institute essays, 1957. (1957) editor ISBN 978-0-231-02278-1
- A Glossary of Literary Terms (1957; 9th ed. 2009) ISBN 978-1-4130-3390-8
- English Romantic Poets: modern essays in criticism (1960) ISBN 978-0-19-501946-9
- Norton Anthology of English Literature (1962) founding editor, many later editions
- The Milk of Paradise: the effect of opium visions on the works of DeQuincey, Crabbe, Francis Thompson, and Coleridge (1970) ISBN 978-0-374-90028-1
- Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature (1971) ISBN 978-0-393-00609-4
- The Correspondent Breeze: essays on English Romanticism (1984) ISBN 978-0-393-30340-7
- Doing Things with Texts: essays in criticism and critical theory (1989) ISBN 978-0-393-02713-6
- The Fourth Dimension of a Poem and Other Essays (2012) ISBN 978-0-393-05830-7
- "The Last Critic Turns 100" by Adam Kirsch
- "M.H. Abrams continues his labors (of love)". News.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
- "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter A". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
- See article in the Cornell Chronicle.
- Seely, Hart (2012-07-23). "The man behind the Norton Anthology of English Literature is turning 100 today". The Post-Standard (Advance Publications). Retrieved 2012-07-23.
- M. H. Abrams (1962), ed., The Norton Anthology of English Literature, New York: Norton, back cover.
- M. H. Abrams (1962), ed., The Norton Anthology of English Literature, New York: Norton, p. 253.
- M. H. Abrams (1962), ed., The Norton Anthology of English Literature, New York: Norton, p. 415.
- M. H. Abrams (1962), ed., The Norton Anthology of English Literature, New York: Norton, p. 1341.
- Lawrence Lipking, editor (1981) High Romantic Argument: Essays For M.H. Abrams ISBN 978-0-8014-1307-0
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- "The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory & Criticism" entry Short informative text on him.
- M.H. Abrams reads poetry aloud at the National Humanities Center