Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) is a major assessment of the effects of human activity on the environment. It popularized the term ecosystem services, the benefits gained by humans from ecosystems.
During the 1990s a need was identified by a number of international environmental organisations for a global ecosystem assessment. There had been advances in fields such as resource economics but the new findings had little effect on environmental policy. This led to the launch of the MA in 2001 with the work done over a period of four years. Over 1300 contributors from 95 countries were involved as authors.
The MA gave four main assessments:
- Environmental issue
- Conservation (ethic)
- The Limits to Growth, a 1972 book about the computer modeling of exponential economic and population growth with finite resource supplies
- Watson, Robert T.; United Nations Environment Programme; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1999). Protecting our planet, securing our future : linkages among global environmental issues and human needs. Nairobi, Kenya: United National Environment Programme. p. 95. ISBN 9789280717525.
- Corvalan,, Carlos; Hales, Simon; McMichael, Anthony (2006). Ecosystems and human well-being : health synthesis: a report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Geneva: WHO. ISBN 9241563095.
- "History of the Millennium Assessment". UNEP. UNEP. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being : synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 1-59726-040-1.
- "Overview of the Milliennium Ecosystem Assessment". UNEP.