Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

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The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) is a major assessment of the effects of human activity on the environment. It popularized the term ecosystem services, the benefits gained by humans from ecosystems.


During the 1990s, a need was identified by a number of international environmental organisations for a global ecosystem assessment. There had been advances in fields such as resource economics but the new findings had little effect on environmental policy. This led to the launch of the MA in 2001 with the work done over a period of four years.[1] Over 1300 contributors from 95 countries were involved as authors.[2]


The MA gave four main assessments:[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "History of the Millennium Assessment". UNEP. UNEP. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  2. ^ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being : synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 1-59726-040-1. 
  3. ^ "Overview of the Milliennium Ecosystem Assessment". UNEP. 

External links[edit]