NDUFS4

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NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4, 18kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)
Identifiers
Symbols NDUFS4 ; AQDQ; CI-18
External IDs OMIM602694 MGI1343135 HomoloGene1866 GeneCards: NDUFS4 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE NDUFS4 209303 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4724 17993
Ensembl ENSG00000164258 ENSMUSG00000021764
UniProt O43181 Q9CXZ1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002495 NM_010887
RefSeq (protein) NP_002486 NP_035017
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
52.86 – 52.98 Mb
Chr 13:
114.29 – 114.39 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrial also known as NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 18 kDa subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NDUFS4 gene.[1][2][3]

Function[edit]

Complex I, or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the first multisubunit enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain chain, plays a vital role in cellular ATP production, the primary source of energy for many crucial processes in living cells. It removes electrons from NADH and passes them by a series of different protein-coupled redox centers to the electron acceptor ubiquinone. In well-coupled mitochondria, the electron flux leads to ATP generation via the building of a proton gradient across the inner membrane. Complex I is composed of at least 41 subunits, of which 7 are encoded by the mitochondrial genome (ND1-6, ND4L) and the remainder by nuclear genes.[3][1]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations in the ACAD9 gene are associated with Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency, which is autosomal recessive. This deficiency is the most common enzymatic defect of the oxidative phosphorylation disorders.[4][5] Mitochondrial complex I deficiency shows extreme genetic heterogeneity and can be caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes or in mitochondrial-encoded genes. There are no obvious genotype-phenotype correlations, and inference of the underlying basis from the clinical or biochemical presentation is difficult, if not impossible.[6] However, the majority of cases are caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes.[7][8] It causes a wide range of clinical disorders, ranging from lethal neonatal disease to adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. Phenotypes include macrocephaly with progressive leukodystrophy, nonspecific encephalopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathy, liver disease, Leigh syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, and some forms of Parkinson disease.[9]Complex I deficiency with autosomal recessive inheritance results from mutation in nuclear-encoded subunit genes, including NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFA2, NDUFA11, NDUFAF3, NDUFAF10, NDUFB3, NDUFB9, ACAD9, FOXRED1, and MTFMT.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b van den Heuvel L, Ruitenbeek W, Smeets R, Gelman-Kohan Z, Elpeleg O, Loeffen J et al. (Feb 1998). "Demonstration of a new pathogenic mutation in human complex I deficiency: a 5-bp duplication in the nuclear gene encoding the 18-kD (AQDQ) subunit". American Journal of Human Genetics 62 (2): 262–8. doi:10.1086/301716. PMC 1376892. PMID 9463323. 
  2. ^ Emahazion T, Beskow A, Gyllensten U, Brookes AJ (Nov 1998). "Intron based radiation hybrid mapping of 15 complex I genes of the human electron transport chain". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 82 (1-2): 115–9. doi:10.1159/000015082. PMID 9763677. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: NDUFS4 NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4, 18kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)". 
  4. ^ Kirby DM, Salemi R, Sugiana C, Ohtake A, Parry L, Bell KM et al. (Sep 2004). "NDUFS6 mutations are a novel cause of lethal neonatal mitochondrial complex I deficiency". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 114 (6): 837–45. doi:10.1172/JCI20683. PMID 15372108. 
  5. ^ McFarland R, Kirby DM, Fowler KJ, Ohtake A, Ryan MT, Amor DJ et al. (Jan 2004). "De novo mutations in the mitochondrial ND3 gene as a cause of infantile mitochondrial encephalopathy and complex I deficiency". Annals of Neurology 55 (1): 58–64. doi:10.1002/ana.10787. PMID 14705112. 
  6. ^ Haack TB, Haberberger B, Frisch EM, Wieland T, Iuso A, Gorza M et al. (Apr 2012). "Molecular diagnosis in mitochondrial complex I deficiency using exome sequencing". Journal of Medical Genetics 49 (4): 277–83. doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-100846. PMID 22499348. 
  7. ^ Loeffen JL, Smeitink JA, Trijbels JM, Janssen AJ, Triepels RH, Sengers RC et al. (2000). "Isolated complex I deficiency in children: clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects". Human Mutation 15 (2): 123–34. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(200002)15:2<123::AID-HUMU1>3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 10649489. 
  8. ^ Triepels RH, Van Den Heuvel LP, Trijbels JM, Smeitink JA (NaN). "Respiratory chain complex I deficiency". American Journal of Medical Genetics 106 (1): 37–45. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1397. PMID 11579423.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ Robinson BH (May 1998). "Human complex I deficiency: clinical spectrum and involvement of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenicity of the defect". Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1364 (2): 271–86. PMID 9593934. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Papa S, Sardanelli AM, Scacco S, Petruzzella V, Technikova-Dobrova Z, Vergari R et al. (Feb 2002). "The NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of the mammalian respiratory chain and the cAMP cascade". Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 34 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1023/A:1013863018115. PMID 11860175. 
  • Pilkington SJ, Skehel JM, Gennis RB, Walker JE (Feb 1991). "Relationship between mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase and a bacterial NAD-reducing hydrogenase". Biochemistry 30 (8): 2166–75. doi:10.1021/bi00222a021. PMID 1900194. 
  • Loeffen JL, Triepels RH, van den Heuvel LP, Schuelke M, Buskens CA, Smeets RJ et al. (Dec 1998). "cDNA of eight nuclear encoded subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase: human complex I cDNA characterization completed". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 253 (2): 415–22. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9786. PMID 9878551. 
  • Triepels RH, Hanson BJ, van den Heuvel LP, Sundell L, Marusich MF, Smeitink JA et al. (Mar 2001). "Human complex I defects can be resolved by monoclonal antibody analysis into distinct subunit assembly patterns". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (12): 8892–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009903200. PMID 11112787. 
  • Papa S, Scacco S, Sardanelli AM, Vergari R, Papa F, Budde S et al. (Feb 2001). "Mutation in the NDUFS4 gene of complex I abolishes cAMP-dependent activation of the complex in a child with fatal neurological syndrome". FEBS Letters 489 (2-3): 259–62. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)02334-6. PMID 11165261. 
  • Petruzzella V, Vergari R, Puzziferri I, Boffoli D, Lamantea E, Zeviani M et al. (Mar 2001). "A nonsense mutation in the NDUFS4 gene encoding the 18 kDa (AQDQ) subunit of complex I abolishes assembly and activity of the complex in a patient with Leigh-like syndrome". Human Molecular Genetics 10 (5): 529–35. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.5.529. PMID 11181577. 
  • Roef MJ, Reijngoud DJ, Jeneson JA, Berger R, de Meer K (Apr 2002). "Resting oxygen consumption and in vivo ADP are increased in myopathy due to complex I deficiency". Neurology 58 (7): 1088–93. doi:10.1212/wnl.58.7.1088. PMID 11940698. 
  • Lee BH, Lee H, Xiong L, Zhu JK (Jun 2002). "A mitochondrial complex I defect impairs cold-regulated nuclear gene expression". The Plant Cell 14 (6): 1235–51. doi:10.1105/tpc.010433. PMC 150777. PMID 12084824. 
  • Papa S (Sep 2002). "The NDUFS4 nuclear gene of complex I of mitochondria and the cAMP cascade". Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1555 (1-3): 147–53. doi:10.1016/S0005-2728(02)00270-0. PMID 12206907. 
  • Bénit P, Steffann J, Lebon S, Chretien D, Kadhom N, de Lonlay P et al. (May 2003). "Genotyping microsatellite DNA markers at putative disease loci in inbred/multiplex families with respiratory chain complex I deficiency allows rapid identification of a novel nonsense mutation (IVS1nt -1) in the NDUFS4 gene in Leigh syndrome". Human Genetics 112 (5-6): 563–6. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0884-2. PMID 12616398. 
  • Scacco S, Petruzzella V, Budde S, Vergari R, Tamborra R, Panelli D et al. (Nov 2003). "Pathological mutations of the human NDUFS4 gene of the 18-kDa (AQDQ) subunit of complex I affect the expression of the protein and the assembly and function of the complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (45): 44161–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M307615200. PMID 12944388. 
  • Budde SM, van den Heuvel LP, Smeets RJ, Skladal D, Mayr JA, Boelen C et al. (2004). "Clinical heterogeneity in patients with mutations in the NDUFS4 gene of mitochondrial complex I". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 26 (8): 813–5. doi:10.1023/B:BOLI.0000010003.14113.af. PMID 14765537. 
  • Papa S, Petruzzella V, Scacco S, Vergari R, Panelli D, Tamborra R et al. (Mar 2004). "Respiratory complex I in brain development and genetic disease". Neurochemical Research 29 (3): 547–60. doi:10.1023/B:NERE.0000014825.42365.16. PMID 15038602. 
  • Petruzzella V, Panelli D, Torraco A, Stella A, Papa S (Jul 2005). "Mutations in the NDUFS4 gene of mitochondrial complex I alter stability of the splice variants". FEBS Letters 579 (17): 3770–6. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2005.05.035. PMID 15975579. 
  • Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B et al. (Aug 2005). "Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry". Nature Methods 2 (8): 591–8. doi:10.1038/nmeth776. PMID 16094384.