Nicaraguan general election, 1990

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A general elections were held in Nicaragua to elect a president and parliament on February 25, 1990.

Presidential election results[1][edit]

Candidate Party/Alliance Votes %
Violeta Barrios de Chamorro National Opposition Union (UNO) = National Conservative Party (PNC) / Popular Conservative Alliance (APC) / National Conservative Action (ACN) / Democratic Party of National Confidence (PDCN) / Independent Liberal Party (PLI) / Neoliberal Party (PALI) / Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) / National Action Party (PAN) / Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) / Communist Party of Nicaragua (PC de N) / Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC) / Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN) / Social Democratic Party (PSD) / Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC) 54.74% 777,552
Daniel Ortega Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 40.82% 579,886
Erick Ramírez Beneventes Social Christian Party (PCS) 01.18% 16,751
Issa Moisés Hassán Morales Revolutionary Unity Movement (MUR) 00.78% 11,136
Bonifacio Miranda Bengoechea Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRT) 00.60% 8,590
Isidro Téllez Toruño Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement (MAP ML) 00.57% 8,115
Fernando Bernabé Agüero Rocha Social Conservative Party (PSC) 00.41% 5,798
Blanca Rojas Echaverry Central American Unionist Party (PUCA) 00.36% 5,065
Eduardo Molina Palacios Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN) 00.32% 4,500
Rodolfo Robelo Herrera Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN) 00.22% 3,151
Total valid votes 100% 1,420,544
Spoilt and invalid votes 05.97% 90,249
Total votes/Turnout 86.23% 1,510,838
Registered voters 1,752,088
Population 3,800,000

Legislative election [2][edit]

Parties and alliances Votes % Seats*
National Opposition Union (UNO) = National Conservative Party (PNC) / Popular Conservative Alliance (APC) / National Conservative Action (ACN) / Democratic Party of National Confidence (PDCN) / Independent Liberal Party (PLI) / Neoliberal Party (PALI) / Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) / National Action Party (PAN) / Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) / Communist Party of Nicaragua (PC de N) / Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC) / Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN) / Social Democratic Party (PSD) / Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC) 764,748 53.88% 51****
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 579,723 40.84% 39**
Social Christian Party (PCS) 22,218 01.57% 01
Revolutionary Unity Movement (MUR) 13,995 00.99% 01***
Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRT) 10,586 00.75% 00
Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement (MAP ML) 7,643 00.54% 00
Social Conservative Party (PSC) 6,308 00.44% 00
Central American Unionist Party (PUCA) 5,565 00.39% 00
Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN) 5,083 00.36% 00
Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN) 3,515 00.25% 00
Total valid votes 1,419,384 100% 92*
Spoilt and invalid votes 92,723 06.13%
Total votes/Turnout 1,512,107 86.30%
Registered voters 1,752,088
Population 3,870,700

(*) Including two seats for unsuccessful presidential candidates. (**) Includes defeated presidential] candidate. (***) As defeated presidential candidate. (****) PNC – 5; APC – 6; PLI – 5; PLC – 5; PALI – 3; PAN – 3; PDCN – 5; PC de N – 3; PSN – 3; PSD – 5; MDN – 3; PIAC – 1; ACN – 2; PPSC – 2.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Elections in the Americas : a data handbook / ed. by Dieter Nohlen, Vol. 1. [Oxford] [u.a.] : Oxford Univ. Press, 2005. Pp.502.
  2. ^ Elections in the Americas : a data handbook / ed. by Dieter Nohlen, Vol. 1. [Oxford] [u.a.] : Oxford Univ. Press, 2005. Pp.496.

Bibliography[edit]

Alcántara Sáez, Manuel. Sistemas políticos de América Latina. Madrid: Tecnos. Two volumes. Volume two is “México, América Central y el Caribe.” Largely rewritten and updated second edition. 1999.

Anderson, Leslie. “Elections and public opinion in the development of Nicaraguan democracy.” Seligson, Mitchell A. and John A. Booth. 1995. Elections and democracy in Central America, revisited. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Booth, John A. “ Nicaragua: revolution under siege.” Latin American politics and development. 1990. Boulder: Westview Press. Third edition, fully revised and updated.

Booth, John A. “¿Hacia la democracia en Nicaragua? Élites, cultura política y las elecciones de 1990.” Transiciones a la democracia en Europa y America Latina. 1991. México, D.F.: FLACSO.

Booth, John A. and Thomas W. Walker. Understanding Central America. Boulder: Westview Press. Third edition. 1999.

Brown, Timothy C. Causes of continuing conflict in Nicaragua: a view from the radical middle. Stanford: Stanford University, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace. 1995.

Butler, Judy. “The peoples of the Atlantic Coast.” Nicaragua without illusions: regime transition and structural adjustment in the 1990s. 1997. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc.

Chinchilla, Norma Stoltz. “Feminism, revolution, and democratic transitions in Nicaragua.” The women’s movement in Latin America: participation and democracy. 1994. Boulder: Westview Press. Second edition.

Close, David. “ Nicaragua: the legislature as seedbed of conflict.” Legislatures and the new democracies in Latin America. 1995. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Close, David. Nicaragua : the Chamorro years. Boulder: Lynne Reinner. 1999.

Dunkerley, James. The pacification of Central America: political change in the isthmus, 1987-1993. London: Verso. 1994.

Elections in the Americas A Data Handbook Volume 1. North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Edited by Dieter Nohlen. 2005.

Fauriol, Georges and Eva Loser. The 1990 Nicaraguan elections: pre-election analysis. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic & International Studies. 1990.

Fiallos Oyanguren, Mariano. “Nicaragua: sistema de elección de los diputados ante la Asamblea Nacional.” Sistemas de elecciones parlamentarias y su relación con la gobernabilidad democrática. 2000. San José: Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos.

Figueroa Ibarra, Carlos. “Centroamérica: entre la crisis y la esperanza (1978-1990).” Historia general de Centroamérica. 1994. San José: FLACSO. Volume six,

Goodman, Louis W., ed. Political parties and democracy in Central America. Boulder: Westview Press. 1992.

Grigsby Vado, William. “The bankruptcy of municipal governments and the swindle of municipal autonomy.” Envío 22, 264:17-28 (July 2003).

Hale, Charles R. Resistance and contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan state, 1894-1987. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1994.

Herrera Zúniga, René. Nicaragua, el derrumbe negociado: los avatares de un cambio de régimen. México, D.F.: El Colegio de México. 1994.

Horton, Lynn. Peasants in arms: war and peace in the mountains of Nicaragua, 1979-1994. Athens: Ohio University, Center for International Studies. 1998.

Hoyt, Katherine. “Parties and pacts in contemporary Nicaragua.” Undoing democracy: the politics of electoral caudillismo. 2004. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Isbester, Katherine. Still fighting: the Nicaraguan women’s movement, 1977-2000. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 2001.

Kagan, Robert. A twilight struggle: American power and Nicaragua, 1977-1990. New York: Free Press. 1996.

Kirk, John M. Politics and the Catholic Church in Nicaragua. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 1992.

Luciak, Ilja A. “Women in the transition. The revolutionary left, gender equality, and democratization: a comparison of El Salvador and Nicaragua.” Pensamiento propio series 2, 6:207-242 (enero-abril 1998). Spanish edition published separately in this issue.

Luciak, Ilja A. After the revolution: gender and democracy in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Also published as Después de la revolución. San Salvador: UCA Editores). 2001.

Merrill, Tim L., ed. Nicaragua : a country study. Washington: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1994.

Metoyer, Cynthia Chavez. Women and the state in post-Sandinista Nicaragua. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. 2000.

Millett, Richard L. “ Nicaragua: the politics of frustration.” Latin American politics and development. 2000. Boulder: Westview Press. Fifth edition, fully revised and updated. 2000.

Núñez Vargas, Eduardo. “Nicaragua: autónomas en el Atlántico, 27 de febrero de 1994.” Boletín electoral latinoamericano 11:11-27 (enero-junio 1994).

Ortega Hegg, Manuel. “Participación y democracia en Nicaragua.” Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: democracia y participación en Centroamérica. 2001. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO.

Patterson, Henry. “The 1996 elections and Nicaragua’s fragile transition.” Government and opposition 32, 3: 380-398 (summer 1997).

Payne, Douglas W. The 1996 Nicaragua elections: post-election report. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies. 1996.

Political handbook of the world 1996. New York, 1997.

Ryan, David. US-Sandinista diplomatic relations: voice of intolerance . London: MacMillan Press Ltd. 1995.

Serra Vázquez, Luis H. “Una democratización peculiar: Nicaragua en los 80.” Ilusiones y dilemmas: la democracia en Centroamérica. 1995. San José: FLACSO, Programa Costa Rica.

Vílas, Carlos M. “Especulaciones sobre una sorpresa: las elecciones en Nicaragua.” Secuencia 17:119-148 (mayo-agosto de 1990).

Weaver, Eric and William Barnes. “Opposition parties and coalitions.” Revolution and counterrevolution in Nicaragua. 1991. Boulder: Westview Press.

Zub Kurylo wicz, Roberto. Protestantismo y elecciones en Nicaragua. Managua: Ediciones Nicarao, Centro InterEclesial de Estudios Teológicos y Sociales. 1993.