Nozhat al-Majales

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Noz'hat al-Majāles (Persian: نزهة المجالس‎ "Joy of the Gatherings/Assemblies") is an anthology which contains around 4,100 Persian quatrains[1] by some 300 poets of the 5th to 7th centuries AH (11th to 13th centuries AD). The anthology was compiled around the middle of the 7th century AH (13th century) by the Persian poet Jamal al-Din Khalil Shirvani.[1] Jamal al-Din Khalil Shirvani (Persian: جمال خلیل شروانی‎) compiled his anthology in the name of 'Ala al-Din Shirvanshah Fariborz III (r. 1225-51), son of Goshtasp. The book was dedicated to Fariboz III.

Book[edit]

The book is arranged by subject in 17 chapters divided into 96 different sections.[1] The anthology also includes 179 quatrains and an ode (qasida) of 50 distiches written by Jamal Khalil Shirvani himself. The book is preserved in a unique manuscript copied by Esmail b. Esfandiyar b. Mohammad b. Esfandiar Abhari on July 31, 1331.[1]

A significant importance of Nozhat al-Majales is that it contains quatrains from poet whose collected works are no longer extant. For example, it contains thirty-three quatrains by Omar Khayyam and sixty quatrains by Mahsati. These are among the oldest and most reliable collections of their works. Nozhat al-Majales also contains quatrains from such scholars and mystics as Avicenna, Attar of Nishapur, Sanai, Afdal al-Din Kashani, Ahmad Ghazali (the mystic brother of al-Ghazali), Majd al-din Baghdadi (a major figure of traditional Sufism born in Baghdadak in Great Khorasan) and Ahmad Jam, who had never been recognized as major poets. It also contains quatrains from writers and poets who are not known for their quatrains such as Asadi Tusi, Nizami Ganjavi, Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani and Qabus. Some quatrains are even narrated from statements and rulers such as Fariboz III Shirvanshah, the Seljuq Sultan Tugrul and Shams ad-Din Juvayni.

Persian language and culture in the Caucasus regions[edit]

The most significant merit of Nozhat al-Majales, as regards to the history of Persian literature, is that it embraces the works of some 115 poets from the northwestern Iran and Eastern Transcaucasia (Arran, Sharvan, Azerbaijan; including 24 poets from Ganja alone),[1] where, due to the change of language, the heritage of Persian literature in that region has almost entirely vanished.[1] The fact that numerous quatrains of some poets from the region (e.g. Aziz Shirwani, Shams Sojasi, Amir Najib al-Din Omar of Ganjda, Kamal Maraghi, Borhan Ganjai, Eliyas Ganjai, Bakhtiar Shirwani) are mentioned in a series shows that the author possed their collected works.[1]

Unlike other parts of Persia, were the poets were attached to courts, or belonged to higher ranks of society such as scholars, bureaucrats, and secretaries, a good number of poets from the Eastern Transcaucasian regions rose among working-class people.[1] They frequently use colloquial expression in their poetry. They are referred to as water carriers (Saqqa'), Sparrow dealers, bodyguard (jandar), saddlers, blanket makers (Lehafi), and etc.[1] Some of these poets were also female[1] such as Dokhatri-i Khatib Ganjeh, Dokhtar-i Salar, Dokhtar-i Sati, Mahsati Ganjavi, Dokhtar-i Hakim Kaw, Razziya Ganjai.[2] This fact that many famale poets and everyday people not connected to courts have composed quatrains illustrates the overall use of Persian in that region[1] before its gradual linguistic Turkification.[2]

Professor. Mohammad-Amin Riahi considers this book a total reflection of the Iranian culture of Arran, Sherwan and Azerbaijan at that time.[3] In the extensive introduction[4] to this book, he notes that the historian Tabari mentions the earliest known post-Islamic Persian poet of the area (Maragha/Marand in Azerbaijan) as the Iranicised[5] Mohammad ibn Ba'ith whose ancestors had migrated from Arabia two generations before.[2] This is evidence of the existence of the cultivation of poetry in Persian in northwestern Persia at the beginning of the 9th century[5] and that Ibn Ba’ith must have been Iranicised to a considerable extent.[5] Professor Mohammad-Amin Riahi believes that unlike the opinion of some Soviet era writers(and some who repeated them),[2] Nozhat al-Majales decisively proves that it was the general Iranian culture of the area with both the Fahlavi language and Arranian Persian[2] that was responsible for the Iranicization[2] of Shirvanshahs (originally of Arabic descent)[6] and other rulers of the area, and the spread of Iranian culture.[2] According to him, it was the Iranian culture of the region (which according to him was in constant contact with other cultures of the Caucasus)[2] that imposed itself on the courts (citing the extensive amount of poets, the use of Fahlavi vernacular, use of idiom in the language, majority of the poets not being associated with courts and having common jobs, as well as the number of women poets) and not due to the Iranian and Iraniczied rulers of the area.[1][2]

To summarize:[1]

Nozhat al-mājales is thus a mirror of the social conditions at the time, reflecting the full spread of Persian language and the culture of Iran throughout that region, clearly evidenced by the common use of spoken idioms in poems as well as the professions of the some of the poets. The influence of the northwestern Pahlavi language, for example, which had been the spoken dialect of the region, is clearly observed in the poems contained in this anthology.

Information on common culture[edit]

The Nozhat al-Majales not only has collected 4100 quatrains, but also provides information on everyday life the of the common people in the region. Chapter eleven of the anthology contains informative details about clothing, the cosmetics used by women, the games people played and their usual recreational practices such as pigeon fancying (Persian: kabutar-bāzi‎), even-or-odd game (Persian: tak yā joft bāzi), exercising with a sledgehammer (Persian: potk zadan), and archery (Persian:tir-andāzi).[1] Descriptions of various musical instruments are also given such as the Tambourine (Persian:Daf), reed pipe (Persian: Ney), harp (Persian: Chang[1]) and details on how these instruments were held by the performers.

One even finds in this anthology details of people's everyday living practices such as using a pumice (Persian sang-e pā)[1] to scrub the sole of their feet and gel-e saršur (Persian for head-cleaning material) to wash their hair.[1]

Names of some of the poets from North-West Persia[edit]

A complete list of the poets from Arran, Sherwan and Azerbaijan are given in the book:[7] (i.e., Jamal Khalil Shirvani, Nezami Ganjei, Sa'ad Ganjei, Shams Asad Ganjei, Mahasti Ganjei, Pesar-i Khatib Ganjei, Pesar-i Seleh Ganjei, Burhan Ganjei, Jamal Ganjei, Shams Eliyas Ganjei, Dokhtar-i Khatib Ganjei, Dokhtar-i Hakim Gav, Dokhtar Sati, Najm al-din Hamid ibn Simgar, Husseyn Hezarmard, Mokhtasar Ganjei, Raziyya Ganjei, Abul 'Ala Shapur, Bakhtiyar Shirvani, Jahan Gashteh, Taj Zangani, Khaqani Shirvani, Sa'ad Shirvani, Seyf Teflisi, Shirvanshah Fariboz, Aziz Shirvani, Ayyani Ganjei, Falaki Shirvani, Nafis Shirvani, Ali Shirvani..etc.). Most of these poets were unknown before the discovery of this anthology.

Translations[edit]

The anthology has never been fully translated to English although selected quatrains from famous poets (such as Khayyam) have been translated into the English language. Similarly, some of the quatrains from other poets have been translated into the English language separately by Prof. Dick Davis[8] and R. Saberi.[9]

The following is a selection of quatrains found in the Nozhat al-Majales. 1) The first quatrain as the anthology is from Abul Majd ad-Din Baghdadi (originally from the town of Baghdadak in Chorasmia/Greater Khorasan and who probably perished during the Mongol invasion)

Persian original:

ای نسخه نامه الهی که تویی

وی آینه جمال شاهی که تویی

بیرون ز تو نیست هرچه در عالم هست

در خود بطلب هرآنچه خواهی تویی

Translation by R. Saberi:

O you who are the transcription of God's scripture

And the mirror of his majestic beauty,

Whatever exists in the world is not outside of you

Seek in yourself anything you want, for you are that

2) From Sanai

Persian original:

آنها که اسیر عشق دلدارند

از دیده، سرشک خون دل بارانند

هرگز، نشود بخت بد از عشق جدا

بخت بد و عاشقی بهم یارانند

Translation:

Those that are prisoners in the love of the heart-holder

From their eyes, the blood of their heart flows

Misfortune is never separated from love

Bad fate and love are each others lovers

3)

From Shams Ganjei (one of the poets from Ganja whose only works seem to have survived in this anthology):

Persian original:

از روی تو، سرو بوستان هست خجل

وز زلف تو مشک تا به جان هست خجل

خورشید، که عرصۀ زمین روشن ازوست

از روی تو به آسمان، هست خجل

From the splendour of your face, the cypress of the garden is ashamed

And from the aroma of the ringlet of your hair, the musk is completely ashamed

The sun, which covers all of the earth with its brightness

In the heavens, from the beauty of your face, is ashamed

4)

From a female poet by the name Dukhtar-i Saalaar (Persian: دختر سالار‎)

Original Persian:

بر دیدۀ من چون اشک گلگو بچکد

هر لحظه هزار قطرۀ خون بچکد

بر آتش عشق تو کباب است دلم

چون گرم شود کباب از خون بچکد

Translated by R. Saberi:

As the rose-colored tears drip from my eyes

A thousand drops of blood fall down every moment

My heart is like kebab in the fire of your love

When the kebab is heated, it drips blood

5)

From Omar Khayyam

Original Persian:

آن را که به صحرای علل تاخته‌اند

بی او همه کارها بپرداخته‌اند

امروز بهانه‌ای در انداخته‌اند

فردا همان بود، کهدی ساخته‌اند

Translation by R. Saberi:

Before a person is forced into this plain of pains,

Everything about him has been decided without his consent,

Today they have offered an excuse for what

They have already determined for tomorrow.

6)

From Mahasti Ganjei

Original Persian:

جان در ره غمهاش خطر باید کرد

آسوده دلی زیر و زبر باید کرد

وآنگه ز رضای یار نادیده اثر

با درد دل از جهان گذر باید کرد

Translation by R. Saberi:

In the way of love, one must risk one's life

And turn the peace of the heart upside down

And then, having seen no sign of the beloved's satisfaction

One must pass this world with a suffering heart

7)

From Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi

Original Persian:

اصل گهر عشق ز کانی دگر است

منزلگه عاشقان جهانی دگر است

وان مرغ که دانه غم عشق خورد

بیرون ز دو کوُنش آشیانی دگر است

The origin of the gem of love is a different mine

The lovers' home is a different world

The bird that feeds on the seed of longing for love,

Outside of this world and next, has a different nest.

8)

From Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi

Original Persian:

در کوی خرابات بسی مردانند

کز لوح وجود درسها میخوانند

بیرون ز شتر گربه اسرار فلک

دانند شگفتیها و خر می رانند

Translation:

In the street of the tavern of mystics, there are many men

Who learn lessons from the tablet of existence

Beyond the odds and ends of the secret of heaven

They know many marvels, but do not show them.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Mohammad-Amin Riahi. "NOZHAT AL-MAJĀLES". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved April 4, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jamāl-al-Din Ḵalil Šarvāni, Nozhat al-majāles, ed. Moḥammad Amin Riāḥi, Tehran, 2nd ed. Tehran, 1996. On Mohammad ibn Ba'ith: صفحه 18: اما نباید این تصور را پیش آورد که سخن فارسی همراه سلجوقیان در آذربایجان و آران راه گشود. برعکس ، این را خوب میدانیم که شمال غرب ایران از آغاز همیشه پایگاه فرهنگ والای ایرانی بوده است، و پیش از آنکه محمد بن وصیف سگزی (نخستینه شاعر شناخهء ایران) در سیستان سرودن قصیده را آغاز کند، به گفتهء طبری پیران مراغه اشعار فارسی (یعنی فهلوی) محمد بن بعیث بن حلبس فرمانروای مرند (متوقی 235) را میخوانده‌‌اند. حلبس پدر بزرگ این مرد، خود از مهاجران تازی نجد و حجاز بود، و شعر فارسی گفتن نوه‌اش به سبب انس با محیط فرهنگ محلی بود. Translation: Pg 18: One should not erroneously claim that the Seljuqs brought Persian into Arran and Azerbaijan. Opposite to this idea, we know well that the North West has always been a rich center for Iranian culture. Even before Muhammad ibn Wasif Sagrzi (the first known poet of Iran) who composed in the Qasida form in Sistan, Tabari has mentioned that the elders of Maragha read the Persian Fahlavi vernacular) poetry of Mohammad ibn Ba'ith ibn Halbas, the ruler of Marand. Halbas, which was his Grandfather, was himself a recent Arabian migrant from the lands of Najd and Hijaz, and the Persian poetry of his grandson was due to his accurlation in the local culture. Pg 20 on USSR writers again: بنابراین ادعای سیاست پیشگان شوروی و جاهلانی که طوطی-وار حرفهای آنها را تکرار میکنند درست نیست، و وجود اینهمه شاعران فارسی‌گوی در قفقاز و آران تحت تأثیر فرامانروایان ایرانی آن سرزمین نبوده، بلکه درست برعکس این ادعای غرض آلود، زبان و فرهنگ بومیان آن دیار بود که فرمانروایان بیگانه را با فرهنگ ایرانی خوگرفت Translation of Page 20: “Thus the theory of politicized Soviet authors and those that ignorantly repeated them are not correct, and multitude of numbers of Persian poets from Caucasus and Arran was not due to the Iranian and Iranicized rulers of the area, but in opposite to this politicized theory, it was the language and culture of the people which Iranicized the rulers” Pg 25-27 is devoted on Arranian Style (Sabk-e-Arrani): برخی پژوهندگان دیگر هم بدون توجه به شیوه‌ی سخن و نوع مضمون و خیال، تنها مناسبت زمانی را در نظرگرفته سخنسرایان آن دیار را جزو "شعرای عراق و اذربایجان" آورده و سخن آنان را در "سبک عراقی" شمرده‌اند. اما نگفته‌اند که شیوه‌ی نظامی و خاقانی کجا به سبک کمال اسماعیل شباهت دارد؟ در این باره باز هم نظر دقیق‌تر و به صحت نزدیک‌تر را دشتی اضهار کرده که بوی سبک هندی از سخنان این شاعران دیده میشود. صحیح‌تر این است که شیوه‌ی سخن این شاعران را در سبکی بعد از سبک خراسانی، و پیش از سبک هندی، و همزمان با سبک عراقی به نام "سبک ارانی" بنامیم. این پیشنهادی است که رد یا قبول آن انتشار همه‌ی آثار این شاعران، و بررسیها و سنجشهای دقیق‌تر محققان باز بسته است. Translation: Some researchers who were not careful with the style, theme and symbolic language and only based upon time period have called the poets of the area as “Poets of Iraq and Azerbaijan”. And thus they have claimed these poets as the Iraqi style. But they have not elucidated how the style of Nizami and Khaqani is similar to the style of Kamal Ismail. With this regard, the scholar Dashti is more correct that one can feel a sense of the Indian style in these poets. More correct than this, is that we should consider the style of these poets as the “Arranian Style”. Its timeline is after the Khurasanian style, concurrent with the Iraqi style and after the Indian style. This suggestion, can only be made clear after publication of the works of all these poets and careful analysis of the styles of thee poets. Pg 21 (section on the culture of Arran): می‌بینیم که در انجا شغل همه‌ی شاعران مداحی نبود، و بسیاری از شاعران به کار و پیشه‌ای سرگرم بودند، و به حرفه‌ی معمولی خود شهرت داشتند، چون: جمال سقا، حسین سقا، جمال عصفوری، زکی اکاف، موفق سراج، مجدالدین جاندار، شهاب دفتر خوان و کاغذی، فخر نقاش، عزیر کحال.. و چنین می‌نماید که در آنجا نسبت با سایر نواحی ایران شماره‌ی زنان شاعر هم بیشتر است. و این می‌تواند نشانه‌ای از شگفتی‌ فرهنگی و اجتماعی آن سامان باشد. اما از مهستی گنجه‌ای و رضیه‌ی گنجه‌ای بگذریم، اینقدر هست که زنان شاعر با نام پدر خود نامیده میشوند: دختر سالار، دختر ستی، دختر سجستانیه، دختر حکیم گاو. Translation: We can see that the job of all poets was not court related, and many of the poets were working in regular jobs and were famed in their own trade. Examples are Jamal-e-Saqaa (Jamal the watercarrier), Hossein-e-Saqaa (Hossein the watercarrier), Jamal-e ‘Osfuri (Jamal the sparrow dealer),, Mufawiq-e Sarraj (Mufawiq the Saddle Dealer), Majd al-Din Jandar (Majd al-Din the Body Guard), Fakhr-e Naqaas (Fakhr the Artistan), Aziz-e Kahaal (Aziz the oculist)… And it also appears that relative to other parts of Iran, the number of female poets was more. This is one of the amazement of the social and cultural peculiarities of that region. Not only Mahasi Ganjei and Razziyeh Ganjei, but there are more such that the femaile poets are known by their father: Dokhtar-e (Daughter of) Salar, Dokhtar-e (Daughter of) Satti, Dokhtar-i Sajastaniya, Dokhtar-i Hakim Gav. pg 47 (Quatrains) and their significance: رباعی شعر زنده و جوشانه عامه‌ی مردم ایران بود، و می‌توان حدس زد که بیشتر همراه چنگ و نی سروده میشد: خنیاگران بزمها را بدان شور و شادی می‌بخشیدند، و صوفیان در مجلس‌های سماع از آن وجد و حال می‌یافتند. .. رباعی شعر پاکیزه و ناب ایران است. سخن دل است، به زبان دل. اینک تکلف و فضل‌فروشی و عالم‌نمایی راه ندارد. Translation of Pg 47: Quatrains are the living and lively poetry of the common folks. One can surmise that they were mainly song and accompanied by the harp and reed. The folk musician in their ceremonies brought them alive with joy. And the Sufis used them in the spiritual dance to accomplish ecstasy... The quatrain is a pure form of Iranian art. It is the speech of the heart, written for the heart. Here, there is no showing off in skill, complexity and knowledge. Pg 28-46 is devoted on the Arranian Persian. Summary: differentiates between Arranian Persian and local Fahlavi dialects (Iranian vernacular dialects) of the area and the influence of Christian cultures and local Fahlavi dialects on the Persian of the area. He uses sources such as Muqaddesi, and other works which quote Estakhri and In Hawqal. Here are the quotes from referenced along other sources: On Muqaddesi: Al-Muqaddasi (d. late 4th century AH/10th century AD) considers Azerbaijan and Arran as part of the 8th division of lands. He states: “The languages of the 8th division is Iranian (al-’ajamyya). It is partly Dari and partly convoluted (monqaleq) and all of them are named Persian” (Al-Moqaddasi, Shams ad-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Ahsan al-Taqasi fi Ma’rifa al-Aqalim, Translated by Ali Naqi Vizieri, Volume One, First Edition, Mu’alifan and Mutarjiman Publishers, Iran, 1981, pg 377.) المقدسي، شمس‌الدين ابوعبدالله محمدبن احمد، احسن التقاسيم في معرفه الاقاليم، ترجمه دكتر علينقي وزيري، جلد 1، چاپ اول، انتشارات مؤلفان و مترجمان ايران، 1361، ص 377. Al-Muqaddasi also writes on the general region of Armenia, Arran and Azerbaijan and states: “They have big beards, their speech is not attractive. In Arminya they speak Armenian, in al-Ran, Ranian (Aranian); Their Persian is understandable, and is close to Khurasanian (Dari Persian) in sound” (Al-Muqaddasi, ‘The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions’, a translation of his Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma’rifat al-Aqalim by B.A. Collins, Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, Garnet Publishing Limited,1994. pg 334). On Istakhri: Estakhri of 10th century also states: “In Azerbeijan, Armenia and Arran they speak Persian and Arabic, except for the area around the city of Dabil: they speak Armenian around that city, and in the country of Barda people speak Arranian.” Original Arabic: و لسان اذربيجان و ارمينيه و الران الفارسيه و العربيه غير ان اھل دبيل و حواليھا یتکلمون بالارمنيه، و نواحی بردعه لسانھم ارانيه (Estakhari, Abu Eshaq Ebrahim. Masalek va Mamalek. Bonyad Moqufat Dr. Afshar, Tehran, 1371 (1992-1993)) Russian: http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/Kavkaz/Karaulov/frametext1.htm Information Arab writers of the Caucasus , Armenia and Aderbeydzhane : I. Al - Istahri / / collection of materials for the description of places and tribes of the Caucasus, Vol . 29 . Tiflis. 1901 Текст воспроизведен по изданию: Сведения арабских писателей о Кавказе, Армении и Адербейджане: I. Ал-Истахрий // Сборник материалов для описания местностей и племен Кавказа, Вып. 29. Тифлис. 1901 Excerpt: “Язык в Адербейджане, Армении и Арране персидский и арабский, исключая области города Дабиля: вокруг него говорят по-армянски: в стране Берда'а язык арранский.”
  3. ^ Moḥammad Amin Riāḥi, “NOZHAT AL-MAJĀLES". Encyclopædia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/articles/nozhat-al-majales.
  4. ^ Jamāl-al-Din Ḵalil Šarvāni, Nozhat al-majāles, ed. Moḥammad Amin Riāḥi, Tehran, 2nd ed. Tehran, 1996. (See extensive Introduction (pp 1-138) referenced for example in: Moḥammad Amin Riāḥi, “NOZHAT AL-MAJĀLES". Encyclopædia Iranica. [1]. And Richard Davis, “Borrowed Wares” Richard Davis, "Borrowed WareMedieval Persian Epigrams", Mage Publishers, 1998. Excerpt from book:"In preparing the brief notes on individual poets my chief debt is to Dr. Zabihollah Safa's Tarikh-e Adabiyat dar Iran ('History of Literature in Iran', 5 vols., Tehran, reprinted 1366/1987). I have also made use of Dr. Mohammad Amin Riahi's introduction to his edition of the 14th-century anthology of rubaiyat, the Nozhat al-Majales ("Pleasure of the Assemblies"), as well as using material from other sources." [2]
  5. ^ a b c V.Minorsky, “Marand” in Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Vol. 6, (1991): pg 504 "According to one of al-Tabari's authorities (iii, 1388), the shaykhs of Maragha who praised the bravery and literary ability (adab) of Ibn Bai'th also quoted his Persian verses (bi'l-fdrisiyya). This important passage, already quoted by Barthold, BSOS, ii (1923), 836-8, is evidence of the existence of the cultivation of poetry in Persian in northwestern Persia at the beginning of the 9th century. Ibn Bai’th must have been Iranicised to a considerable extent, and, as has been mentioned, he relied for support on the non-Arab elements in his Rustakhs (‘Uludj Rasatikhi’)”
  6. ^ Barthold, W., C.E. Bosworth "Shirwan Shah, Sharwan Shah. "Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2nd edition:”We can also discern the progressive Persianisation of this originally Arab family (a process parallel to and contemporary with that of the Kurdicisation of the Rawwadids [q.v.] in Adharbaydjan). After the Shah Yazid b. Ahmad (381-418/991-1028), Arab names give way to Persian ones like Manuchihr, Kubadh, Faridun, etc., very likely as a reflection of marriage links with local families, and possibly with that of the ancient rulers in Shabaran, the former capital, and the Yazidids now began to claim a nasab going back to Bahrain Gur or to Khusraw Anushirwan.”
  7. ^ Sharvānī, Jamāl Khalīl, fl. 13th century, Nuzhat al-majālis / Jamāl Khalīl Sharvānī ; tāʼlīf shudah dar nīmah-ʼi avval-i qarn-i haftum, tashih va muqaddimah va sharh-i hal-i gūyandigān va tawzīḥāt va fihristhā az Muḥammad Amīn Riyāḥī. Tehran] : Intishārāt-i Zuvvār, 1366 [1987] . 764 pages. See also: Rahim Nikhbat, "Persian poetry in Arran and Sherwan in the Ilkhanid era"[3] 1ـ ابوعلا شاپور، 2ـ ابوالفضل تبریزی، 3ـ ابوالقاسم، 4ـ قاضی ابوالمجد، 5ـ اسدی، 6ـ اسمعیل فارسی، 7ـ اطلسی، 8ـ بختیار شروانی، 9ـ بدر تفلیسی، 10ـ بدرالدین محمود، 11ـ بدیع بیلقانی، 12ـ برهان گنجه‌ای، 13ـ بهاء شروانی، 14ـ پسر خطیب گنجه، 15ـ پسر سله گنجه، 16ـ پسر قاضی دربند، 17ـ تاج خلاطی، 18ـ تاج زنگانی، 19ـ تاج صالح، 20ـ تفلیسی شروانی، 21ـ جلال خواری، 22ـ جلالی، 23ـ جمال جویی، 24ـ جمال خلیل شروانی، 25ـ جمال حاجی شروانی، 26ـ جمال عصفوری، 27ـ جمال عمر، 28ـ جمال گنجه‌ای، 29ـ جهان گشته، 30ـ حدیثی، 31ـ شیخ حسین سقا، 32ـ حسین هزارمرد، 33ـ حمید تبریزی، 34ـ حمید شروانی، 35ـ حمید گنجه‌ای، 36ـ خاقانی شروانی، 37ـ دختر حکیم گاو، 38ـ دختر خطیب گنجه، 39ـ دختر سالار، 40ـ دختر ستی، 41ـ رشید بیلقاتی، 42ـ رشید شروانی، 43ـ رشید گنجه‌ای، 44ـ حسین گنجه‌ای، 45ـ رضیه گنجه‌ای، 46ـ رفیع بکرانی ابهری، 47ـ رکن خویی، 48ـ زاهد، 49ـ زکی اکاف (پالاندوز)، 50ـ زکی مراغه ای، 51ـ سجاسی، 52ـ سعد صفار، 53ـ سعد گنجه‌ای، 54ـ سعید شروانی، 55ـ سید شیرانی، 56ـ سیف تفلیسی، 57ـ شرف شفروه، 58ـ شرف صالح بیلقانی، 59ـ شرف مراغی، 60ـ شرف‌الدین مرتضی، 61ـ شروانشاه، 62ـ شمس‌الدین اسعدگنجه‌ای، 63ـ شمس اقطع بیلقانی، 64ـ شمس الیاس گنجه‌ای، 65ـ شمس اهری، 66ـ شمس تبریزی (به غیر از شمس تبریزی معروف است)، 67ـ شمس عمر گنجه، 68ـ شهاب کاغذی، 69ـ شهاب گنجه‌ای، 70ـ صاین مراغی، 71ـ صدر زنگانی، 72ـ صفی بیلقانی، 73ـ صفی شروانی، 74ـ طهیر خونجی، 75ـ ظهیر شفروه، 76ـ ظهرالدین مراغه‌ای، 77ـ عبدالعزیز گنجه‌ای، 78ـ عثمان مراغه‌ای، 79ـ عز ابوالبقا، 80ـ عرشروانی، 81ـ عزیز شروانی، 82ـ عزیز کمال، 83ـ عماد شروانی، 84ـ عیانی گنجه‌ای، 85ـ فخرالدین ابوبکر ابهری، 86ـ فخر گنجه‌ای، 87ـ فخر مراغه‌ای، 88ـ فخر نقاش، 89ـ فلکی شروانی، 90ـ قاضی، 91ـ قاضی تفلیس، 92ـ قطب اهری، 93ـ قطب عتیقی تبریزی، 94ـ قوامی گنجه‌ای، 95ـ کمال ابن‌العزیز، 96ـ کمال ابوعمر ابهری، 97ـ کمال تفلیسی، 98ـ لطیف تفلیسی، 99ـ مجیر بیلقانی، 100ـ محمد طبیب اردبیلی، 101ـ مختصر گنجه‌ای، 102ـ مظفر تبریزی، 103ـ مقرب باکویی، 104ـ مهذب‌الدین دبیرشروانی، 105ـ مهستی گنجه‌ای، 106ـ موفق سراج، 107ـ نجم سیمگر، 108ـ نجم گنجه‌ای، 109ـ نجیب گنجه‌ای، 110ـ نصیر گنجه‌ای، 111ـ نظامی گنجه‌ای، 112ـ نفیس شروانی، 113ـ یحیی تبریزی. 114-جمال خلیل شیروانی
  8. ^ Dick Davis, "Borrowed Ware: Medieval Persian Epigrams",Mage Publishers (May 2004). ISBN 0-934211-38-8
  9. ^ R. Saberi A Thousand Years of Persian Rubaiyat: An Anthology of Quatrains from the Tenth to the Twentieth Century Along With the Original Persian (Paperback) by Reza Saberi (Editor, translator)

References[edit]

  • Sharvānī, Jamāl Khalīl, fl. 13th century, Nuzhat al-majālis / Jamāl Khalīl Sharvānī ; tāʼlīf shudah dar nīmah-ʼi avval-i qarn-i haftum, tashih va muqaddimah va sharh-i hal-i gūyandigān va tawzīḥāt va fihristhā az Muḥammad Amīn Riyāḥī. Tehran] : Intishārāt-i Zuvvār, 1366 [1987] . 764 pages (In Persian containing the complete publication of the book). Digital Version [4][5][6]
  • Hellmut Ritter, "Nachdichtungen persischer poesie", in T. Menzel, ed., Festschrift Georg Jacob zum siebsiegsten Geburstag..., Leipzig, 1932.
  • NOZHAT AL-MAJĀLES". Encyclopædia Iranica. Moḥammad Amin Riāḥi [7] Retrieved on July 20, 2010.
  • Fritz Meier, Die schön Mahsati: Ein beitrage zur geschichte des persischen vierzeilers I, Wiesbaden, 1963, pp. XII, 412.
  • Dick Davis, "Borrowed Ware: Medieval Persian Epigrams",Mage Publishers (May 2004). ISBN 0-934211-38-8
  • R. Saberi A Thousand Years of Persian Rubaiyat: An Anthology of Quatrains from the Tenth to the Twentieth Century Along With the Original Persian (Paperback) by Reza Saberi (Editor, Translator)

External links[edit]

Sharvānī, Jamāl Khalīl, fl. 13th century, Nuzhat al-majālis / Jamāl Khalīl Sharvānī ; tāʼlīf shudah dar nīmah-ʼi avval-i qarn-i haftum, tashih va muqaddimah va sharh-i hal-i gūyandigān va tawzīḥāt va fihristhā az Muḥammad Amīn Riyāḥī. Tehran] : Intishārāt-i Zuvvār, 1366 [1987] . 764 pages (In Persian containing the complete publication of the book). Digital Version [8][9][10]