Omphiscola glabra

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Omphiscola glabra
Omphiscola glabra.JPG
A live individual of Omphiscola glabra on a paper grid, scale bar 1 cm
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Hygrophila
Superfamily: Lymnaeoidea
Family: Lymnaeidae
Subfamily: Lymnaeinae
Genus: Omphiscola
Species: O. glabra
Binomial name
Omphiscola glabra
(Müller, 1774)[1]
Synonyms
  • Buccinum glabrum Müller, 1774
  • Lymnaea glabra

Omphiscola glabra is a species of small to medium-size, air-breathing, freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Lymnaeidae.[2]

Omphiscola glabra is the type species of the genus Omphiscola.[3]

Distribution[edit]

This European snail can be found from southern Scandinavia (61° N) to southern Spain.[4]

  • endangered in Germany. Critically endangered in Western Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Hessen). Extinct in Bavaria.[4]
  • Netherlands
  • one site in the south east of Ireland was found in 2009, but it is listed as extinct on the local Red List (2009).[5]
  • vulnerable in Great Britain[4]

The distribution of Omphiscola glabra is very scattered and rare.[4] It is seriously threatened, and has become locally extinct in many places.[4] It is threatened by continuing habitat destruction because of drainage and intensive farming.[4] Acriculturally induced eutrophication is also a threat. Omphiscola glabra has disappeared widely from urbanized areas such as London.[4]

Drawing of the shell.

Shell description[edit]

The shell is strongly cylindrical, horny, often with a brownish or blackish surface, the apex is blunt, 7-8 moderately convex whorls, with last whorl being twice as high as the narrow aperture, and with aperture often with white lip.[4]

The height of the shell is 9–12 mm,[4] up to 15 mm[6] or up to 20 mm.[4] The width of the shell is 3–4 mm,[4] up to 5.5 mm.[6]

Five shells of Omphiscola glabra

Habitat[edit]

This snail lives in places such as swampy meadows and ditches.[7]

Omphiscola glabra is said to occur in small areas of standing water that have a lot of vegetation such as swamps, and also in standing forest waters with leaf litter, often in water with organic iron contents and low calcium contents.[4][clarification needed]

In Britain however, this species occurs in small standing waters that are low in nutrients, with poor aquatic flora, often in waters drying out periodically.[4] They usually do not occur in habitats with high molluscan diversity, and usually in habitats on uncultivated land.[4] They are calciphile and have a pH tolerance of 5.4-8.8.[4][clarification needed]

Reproduction begins in May.[4] Juveniles hatch after 15–25 days.[4] Omphiscola glabra has two generations per year.[4]

Parasites[edit]

Omphiscola glabra can serve as an intermediate host for several digenean trematodes. In France, Omphiscola glabra was naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica,[8] Paramphistomum daubnei,[9] and Haplometra cylindracea.[10] Moreover, a recent report suggests that the species is also susceptible to Fascioloides magna infection.[11]

References[edit]

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[4]

  1. ^ Müller O. F. (1774). Vermivm terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu animalium infusoriorum, helminthicorum, et testaceorum, non marinorum, succincta historia. Volumen alterum. pp. I-XXXVI [= 1-36], 1-214, [1-10]. Havniae & Lipsiae. (Heineck & Faber).
  2. ^ Glöer P. (2002). Überfamilie Lymnaeoidea Rafinesque 1815. Familie Lymnaeidae Lamarck 1812. In: Glöer P. (ed.) Die Süßwassergastropoden Nord-und Mitteleuropas. Bestimmungschlüssel, Lebensweise, Verbreitung. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 73. Conchbooks, Hackenheim, pp. 200–232.
  3. ^ "Species in genus Omphiscola". AnimalBase, accessed 31 July 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Species summary for Omphiscola glabra". AnimalBase. Last modified 24-02-2009, accessed 31 July 2010.
  5. ^ Anderson R. (2009). "Value of species datasets as baselines (non-marine Mollusca)". accessed 31 July 2010.
  6. ^ a b (Polish) Jackiewicz M. (2000). Blotniarky Europy (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae). Wydawnictwo Kontekst, Poznań. 115 pp.
  7. ^ Rondelaud, D.; Vignoles, P.; Dreyfuss, G. (2001). "First field observations on the aestivation of Omphiscola glabra (Gastropoda, Lymnaeida) uninfected or infected with Fasciola hepatica in central France". Ann. Limnol. - Int. J. Lim. 39: 129–133. doi:10.1051/limn/2003010. 
  8. ^ Dreyfuss, G.; Vignoles, P.; Rondelaud, D. (2003). "Natural infections of Omphiscola glabra with Fasciola hepatica in central France". Parasitology Research 91: 458–461. doi:10.1007/s00436-003-0892-8. 
  9. ^ Abrous, M.; Rondelaud, D.; Dreyfuss, G.; Kabaret, J. (1999). "Infection of Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea glabra by Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum daubneyi in farms of central France". Vet. Res. 30 (1): 113–118. PMID 10081118. 
  10. ^ Goumghar, M. D.; Abrous, M.; Ferdonnet, D.; Dreyfuss, G.; Rondelaud, D. (2000). "Prevalence of Haplometra cylindracea infection in three species of Lymnaea snails in central France". Parasitol. Res. 86 (4): 337–339. doi:10.1007/s004360050054. PMID 10780746. 
  11. ^ Rondelaud, D.; Novobilský, A.; Vignoles, P.; Treuil, P.; Koudela, B.; Dreyfuss, G. (2006). "First studies on the susceptibility of Omphiscola glabra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from central France to Fascioloides magna". Parasitol. Res. 98 (4): 299–303. doi:10.1007/s00436-005-0067-x. PMID 16362339. 

External links[edit]