Gravel // is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is sub-categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel (>2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (>4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). One cubic yard of gravel typically weighs about 3000 pounds (or a cubic metre is about 1,800 kilograms).
Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac; Russia alone has over 400,000 km (250,000 mi) of gravel roads. Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete.
Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering and erosion of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages.
Multiple types of gravel have been recognized,[by whom?] including:
- Bank gravel: gravel intermixed with sand or clay.
- Bench gravel: a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
- Creek rock: this is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from river beds and creek beds. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
- Crushed rock: rock that is mechanically broken into small pieces then sorted by filtering through different size mesh.
- Crushed stone: this is generally limestone or dolomite that has been crushed and graded by screens to certain size classes. It is widely used in concrete and as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may also be made from granite and other rocks. A special type of limestone crushed stone is dense grade aggregate, or DGA, also known as crusher run, or colloquially as "crush and run". This is a mixed grade of mostly small crushed stone in a matrix of crushed limestone powder.
- Fine gravel: gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm.
- Lag gravel: a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles.
- Pay gravel: also known as "pay dirt"; a nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through gold panning.
- Pea gravel: gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Also used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home aquariums.
- Piedmont gravel: a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat ground, where the water runs more slowly.
- Plateau gravel: a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is usually found.
- River run gravel: naturally deposited gravel found in and next to rivers and streams.
Relationship to plantlife
In locales where gravelly soil is predominant, plant life is generally more sparse. This outcome derives from the inferior ability of gravels to retain moisture, as well as the corresponding paucity of mineral nutrients, since finer soils that contain such minerals are present in smaller amounts.
- Mineral Commodity Summaries 2006 2009
- Industrial Sand And Gravel (Silica): World Production, By Country 2009
- Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 30 August 2012 from CollinsDictionary.com website:http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/gravel
- C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Abiotic factor. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds Emily Monosson and C. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC