Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness.
The National Reading Panel has found that phonemic awareness improves children's word reading and reading comprehension, as well as helping children learn to spell. Phonemic awareness is the basis for learning phonics.
Phonemic awareness and phonological awareness are often confused since they are interdependent. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes. Phonological awareness includes this ability, but it also includes the ability to hear and manipulate larger units of sound, such as onsets and rimes and syllables.
Studies by Vickie Snider have shown that phonemic awareness has a direct correlation with students’ ability to read as they get older. Phonemic awareness builds a foundation for students to understand the rules of the English language. This in turn allows each student to apply these skills and increase his or her oral reading fluency and understanding of the text.
Phonemic awareness relates to the ability to distinguish and manipulate individual sounds, such as /f/, /ʊ/, and /t/ in the case of foot. The following are common phonemic awareness skills practiced with students:
- Phoneme isolation: which requires recognizing the individual sounds in words, for example, "Tell me the first sound you hear in the word paste" (/p/).
- Phoneme identity: which requires recognizing the common sound in different words, for example, "Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy and bell" (/b/).
- Phoneme substitution: in which one can turn a word (such as "cat") into another (such as "hat") by substituting one phoneme (such as /h/) for another (/k/). Phoneme substitution can take place for initial sounds (cat-hat), middle sounds (cat-cut) or ending sounds (cat-can).
- Oral segmenting: The teacher says a word, for example, "ball," and students say the individual sounds, /b/, /ɑ/, and /l/.
- Oral blending: The teacher says each sound, for example, "/b/, /ɑ/, /l/" and students respond with the word, "ball."
- Sound deletion: The teacher says word, for example, "bill," has students repeat it, and then instructs students to repeat the word without the first sound, "ill".
- Onset-rime manipulation: which requires isolation, identification, segmentation, blending, or deletion of onsets (the single consonant or blend that precedes the vowel and following consonants), for example, j-ump, st-op, str-ong.
For example, the teacher might say, now say bill without the /b/." Students should respond with "ill". There are other phonemic awareness activities, such as sound substitution, where students are instructed to replace one sound with another, sound addition, where students add sounds to words, and sound switching, where students manipulate the order of the phonemes. These are more complex but research supports the use of the three listed above, particularly oral segmenting and oral blending.
- "Findings and Determinations of the National Reading Panel by Topic Areas". NICHD.
- "Critical Issues: The National Reading Panel". Reading Online.
- Snider, Vicki E. (1997). "The Relationship between Phonemic Awareness and Later Reading Achievement". JSTOR. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- Yopp, Hallie K. "Developing Phonemic Awareness in Young Children". The Reading Teacher Vol. 45, No. 9, 1992 A Journal of the International Reading Association.
- Adams, Marilyn McCord (1998). Phonemic awareness in young children: a classroom curriculum. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes. ISBN 1-55766-321-1. OCLC 36942591.
- Vinita Chhabra; Peggy D. McCardle (2004). The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore: P.H. Brookes Pub. ISBN 1-55766-672-5. OCLC 53880243.
- Fox, Barbara J. (2010). Phonics and Structural Analysis for the Teacher of Reading: Programmed for Self-Instruction. Pearson. ISBN 978-0-13-208094-1.
- Bursuck, William D. (2011). Teaching Reading to Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Pearson. ISBN 978-0-13-705781-8.
- "Read Naturally". Retrieved 3/5/2013.
- Phonemic Awareness: An Important Early Step in Learning To Read - From the ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication.
- Phonemic Awareness - From WETA (DC) Public Television's Reading Rockets