||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the French Wikipedia. (April 2014)|
Pinard is a French term for wine (particularly red wine), popularized as the label for the ration of wine issued to French troops during the First World War. The term became wrapped up in the public conception of the poilu ("hairy one", the typical French foot soldier) and his loved pinard, joined in a "cult of wine".
World War II
Ian Gately's 2008 Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol notes that with the approach of the Second World War, pinard took on a near-legendary reputation, with serious preparations made to ensure a wine ration be provided to French troops, including the requisitioning of bulk liquid railroad cars. However, following France's fall to the German blitzkrieg, even General Philippe Pétain, Chief of State of Vichy France, blamed alcohol for the failures of the French army.
Although the definite answer is unclear, a contemporary work defined the term's origin thus:
Thus, for instance, pinard, wine, was all but unknown in Paris before the war, yet it is now perhaps the most famous word in the whole soldier vocabulary. Pas de pinard, pas de poilu. The origin of the word is not far to seek. The second syllable is an orthodox ending, and pinaud is the name of a well-known small Burgundy grape.
- Pierre Nora; David P. Jordan (15 August 2009). Rethinking France: Les Lieux de Memoire, Volume 3: Legacies. University of Chicago Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-226-59134-6.
- Patricia E. Prestwich (1988). Drink and the politics of social reform: antialcoholism in France since 1870. Society for the Promotion of Science and Scholarship. p. 172.
- Iain Gately (2008). Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. Gotham Books. pp. 402–. ISBN 978-1-59240-303-5.
- Edward Jewitt Wheeler; Isaac Kaufman Funk; William Seaver Woods (1918). The Literary Digest. pp. 5–.
- "The Mad Cult of Pinard". Scientific Temperance Journal. Temperance Education Foundation. 1918. pp. 168–.