Point shooting

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Side view of handgun point shooting position

Point Shooting, also called target focused shooting,[1] is a method of shooting a firearm accurately that does not rely on the use of the sights, which are not, or can not be employed effectively in most all close quarters life threat situations where there is the greatest chance of one being shot and/or killed.[2] The lack of time to use the sights, low or no light conditions, and our body's instinctive and automatically triggered response to a close quarters life threat, can prevent a shooter from meeting the must be met requirements of Sight Reliant Shooting.[3][4] There are several effective Point Shooting methods as noted below, which can be employed effectively in self defense situations.

Overview[edit]

One Point Shooting method, currently referred to as Aimed Point Shooting [5] has been used and discussed since the early 19th century. It is detailed in Lieutenant Colonel Baron De Berenger's 1835 book on rifle and pistol shooting. The method employs the use of the index finger along the side of the gun to aim the gun, and the middle finger is used to pull the trigger. Mention of the use of the middle finger can be found in 11 books from the early 1800s up to 1912: 1804,[6] 1810,[7] 1816,[8] 1829[9] 1835,[10] 1885,[11] 1898,[12] 1900,[13] 1900,[14] 1908,[15] 1912,[16] 1912, and in many other military manuals on the M1911.

The US Army's first instructional manual on the use of the Model 1911 pistol specifically mentions it, but in a cautionary way due to the design of the slide stop. The slide stop pin protrudes out from the right side of the pistol, and if depressed when the gun is fired, the M1911 can jam. Here is the cautionary language found on page 12 of the first manual on the M1911 published by the US military, which recognizes that shooting that way was a known method of shooting:

"3. The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils."

That same cautionary language, or language that is very similar to it, is repeated in many other military manuals published from 1912 and up until the 1940s: 1915,[17] 1917, [18][19] [20] [21] 1918,[22] 1920,[23] 1921,[24][25][26] 1922,[27] 1925,[28] 1926,[29] 1927,[30] 1929,[31] 1941,[32]

Several US Patents have drawings showing the method used with firearms: US Patent # 694969 issued Mar. 11, 1902,[33] US Patent # 896099 issued Aug. 18, 1908,[34] US Patent # 2270707 issued Jan. 20, 1942,[35] US Patent # 5166459 issued Nov. 1992.[36]

Early 20th century shooting experts such as William E. Fairbairn and Rex Applegate advocated Point Shooting, while many experts later in the century advocated the use of sights. Later sight reliant methods include Jeff Cooper's Modern Technique method which became popular after World War II. The modern technique is also known as Sight Reliant Shooting or Sight Shooting.

The issue of using Sight Reliant Shooting, which relies on the use of the sights for aiming in close quarters combat situations, versus Point Shooting, which does not rely on the sights for aiming in close quarters combat situations, has been debated since as early as 1835.[37]

Basis for the use of Aimed Point Shooting[edit]

Aimed Point Shooting employs our innate ability to point accurately at targets in such a way that the shooter can use that ability to hit targets with a firearm.

The following is from Chap. 2, Sect. II, US Army Field Manual 23-25, Combat Training With Pistols & Revolvers:

When a soldier points, he instinctively points at the feature on the object on which his eyes are focused. An impulse from the brain causes the arm and hand to stop when the finger reaches the proper position. When the eyes are shifted to a new object or feature, the finger, hand, and arm also shift to this point. It is this inherent trait that can be used by the soldier to rapidly and accurately engage targets.[38][39]

Walter J. Dorfner SSgt VSP, the Vice Chair of the Use of Force Committee of the Vermont Criminal Justice Training Council at the Vermont Police Academy in Pittsford, VT, wrote a paper that details his experimentation with using that method of aiming and shooting. He also was the lead firearms instructor for the VSP.[40]

The one thing that point shooting methods have in common is that they do not rely on the sights, and they strive to increase the shooter's ability to hit targets at short range under the less than ideal conditions expected in close quarters life threatening situations, self-defense, and combat situations.

In military doctrine[edit]

Point shooting is often included in military tactical training, alongside other topics such as combatives and urban warfare. A variety of point shooting methods have entered military doctrine at various times and places.

Fairbairn, Sykes, and Applegate[edit]

Front view of handgun point shooting position

Soon after the creation of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in 1942, then Second Lieutenant Rex Applegate was given the task of adapting the training being given to British Commando forces for use by OSS agents. Applegate's methodology was published in his book, Kill or Get Killed which was first printed in 1943, and based on his training program for the OSS developed with William E. Fairbairn and Eric A. Sykes. This method is often referred to as the Fairbairn, Sykes, and Applegate method, or FSA (though sometimes the order is altered to FAS).

By 1976, it was into its fifth edition, and was re-published in 1991 as Fleet Marine Force Reference Publication (FMFRP) 12-80. This book covers a wide range of topics, from armed and unarmed combat to prisoner control and riot control techniques. Chapter 5, "Combat Use of the Hand Gun", covers the basic use of a handgun in a combat situation, while chapter 6, "Combat Firing with Shoulder Weapons", covers techniques for submachine guns, rifles and shotguns. While aimed fire techniques are covered in both chapters, along with topics such as use of cover and different firing positions, the point shooting techniques generally attract the most attention. Much of Applegate's instruction on point shooting involves developing a firm, consistent shooting position that allows the student to consistently hit where he is looking.

Side view of shoulder weapon point shooting position

While Applegate did cover firing handguns from the hip (from a position he called the "1/2 hip" position), he was careful to point out that this method only worked on targets at the same level as the shooter, and only at very close range. The preferred method was to bring the handgun up to just below eye level. With the proper grip and a locked elbow and wrist, this will bring the gun to bear on the target. To reduce error in the stance, targets not directly in front of the shooter are engaged by turning the upper body at the hips, since turning the arm at the shoulder, elbow, or wrist will result in a loss of control and a miss, while turning at the waist keeps everything aligned correctly.

Another of Applegate's training innovations was the use of particularly intense combat firing ranges, which he called the "House of horrors". A cross between an obstacle course, a haunted house, and a shooting range, it used a three dimensional layout with stairs and tunnels, pop-up targets, deliberately poor lighting, psychologically disturbing sounds, simulated cobwebs and bodies, and blank cartridges being fired towards the shooter. The range was designed to have the greatest possible psychological impact on the shooter, to simulate the stress of combat as much as possible, and no targets were presented at distances of greater than 10 feet (3.0 m) from the shooter.

Applegate also used his house of horrors as a test of the point shooting training. Five hundred men were run through the house of horrors after standard target pistol training, and then again (with modifications in the layout) after training in point shooting. The average number of hits in the first group was four out of twelve targets hit (with two shots per target). After point shooting, the average jumped to ten out of twelve targets hit. Further shooters trained only in point shooting, including those who had never fired a handgun before receiving point shooting training, maintained the high average established by the first group (FMFRP 12-80, p. 286). Similar methods were in use as early as the 1920s and continue to this day, for example the FBI facility called Hogan's Alley.

Rifle Quick Kill[edit]

The proper method of sighting to hit aerial targets with the sightless BB gun

A method of Point Shooting with a rifle, was developed by Lucky McDaniel and taught by the US Army beginning in 1967. It was called "Quick Kill", and it was taught using an air rifle. The Quick Kill method was fully detailed in step by step fashion in Principles of Quick Kill.[41] It was taught starting with a special Daisy BB gun that had no sights. The slow moving steel BB was visible in flight on sunny days, making it an inexpensive tracer round. The students began by firing at 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) diameter metal disks thrown in the air slightly in front of the student and 2 metres (6.6 ft) to 4 metres (13 ft) above the student's head. After an 80% hit rate is attained firing at these disks, the student is then presented with 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) diameter disks. Once proficiency is attained with the aerial targets, it shows the student has mastered the fundamentals, and training moves on to stationary targets on the ground, first with the BB gun and then with a service rifle having its front and rear sights taped over.

The reason the quick kill method works is that the shooter learns to sight above the barrel, rather than along the barrel. While focusing on the target, the muzzle is placed about 2 inches (5.1 cm) below the target (the distance being measured at the muzzle), which places the barrel nearly parallel to the line of sight of the shooter. To hit the aerial targets, or other targets above eye level, the shooter focuses on the top edge of the target. When shooting at targets on the ground or below eye level, the shooter focuses on the bottom of the target. One of the points emphasized in quick kill is that it is essential to focus on a single spot on the target, such as the top edge of a thrown disc, or the bottom edge of a can on the ground.

A key to hitting the target is to track the target by moving your head with the rifle seated against it. Do not just track it with your eyes.

The Daisy company commercially sold sightless BB guns and target throwers for a number of years under the name Quick Skill, along with an instruction book that was a demilitarized version of the aerial target portion of the "quick kill" course.

Pistol Quick Kill[edit]

In the late 1990's and early 2000's, Robin Brown popularized Pistol Quick Kill. He was a former student of Lucky McDaniel who taught both rifle and pistol shooting.[42]

With Pistol Quick Kill, the pistol is gripped and pointed at a target much like you would point your finger. "When you point, you naturally do not attempt to sight or aim your finger. It will be somewhat below your eye level in your peripheral vision, perhaps 2-4 inches below eye level."

The same applies when pointing a gun at a target. Just as with pointing your finger, you will "...see the end of the barrel and/or front sight while looking at the target...You have not looked at the gun or front sight, just the target."

"With Quick Kill, the focus is always on the target, never having to adjust ones gaze or focus even remotely on the near object [the gun or sights]."

Quick fire[edit]

Quick fire is a method previously used by the US Army for teaching point shooting. It is described in the following excerpt from US Army Field Manual FM 23-9:

For pistol:

Quick-Fire Point Shooting. This is for engaging an enemy at less than 5 yards and is also useful for night firing. Using a two-hand grip, the firer brings the weapon up close to the body until it reaches chin level. He then thrusts it forward until both arms are straight. The arms and body form a triangle, which can be aimed as a unit. In thrusting the weapon forward, the firer can imagine that there is a box between him and the enemy, and he is thrusting the weapon into the box. The trigger is smoothly squeezed to the rear as the elbows straighten.

For rifle:

Aimed quick fire: When presented with a target, the soldier brings the rifle up to his shoulder and quickly fires a single shot. His firing eye looks through or just over the rear sight aperture. And he uses the front post to aim at the target. Using this technique, a target at 25 meters or less may be accurately engaged in one second or less.

Pointer quick fire:

When presented with a target, the soldier keeps the rifle at his side and quickly fires a single shot or burst. He keeps both eyes open and uses his instinct and peripheral vision to line up the rifle with the target. Using this technique, a target at 15 meters or less may be engaged in less than one second.

Pointed and aimed quick fire should be used only when a target cannot be engaged fast enough using the sights in a normal manner. These techniques should be limited to targets appearing at 25 meters or less."[43]

Reflexive fire[edit]

US Navy sailor practices reflexive firing during a periodic weapons assessment

Reflexive fire is a method currently used by the US Army to teach point shooting with a rifle. It is described in US Army Field Manual FM 3-06.11 (Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain).[44]

Israeli method[edit]

The "Israeli method" is a point shooting system devised by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) for use in training personnel to use rifles, submachine guns, and handguns.

In its initial stages of training, it closely resembles the FSA method. In later stages, training in the rapid acquisition of the sights is taught, as well as a more advanced method of point shooting.

In the United States and Canada, the term Israeli method is generally believed to refer to the carrying of a semi-automatic pistol with its chamber empty. However, the carrying of the chamber empty served a safety consideration, rather than a tactical consideration. In past decades, due to severe budget constraints, the IDF purchased and issued large quantities of antiquated side arms, the mechanical safety of which was questionable. In recent decades, as budgets have improved, and more modern, standardized side arms are issued, this mode of carry is being eliminated. It should also be noted that specialized personnel, such as police and special forces units, have typically carried newer and safer firearms, and have rarely used this mode of carry.

Fairbairn and Sykes mentioned and suggested this form of carry in their book discussed above.

References[edit]

  1. ^ link to a Palidin Press interview with Louis Chiodo on Target Focused Shooting. Louis Chiodo developed the Target Focused Shooting system used by the California Highway Patrol, a major Police agency. http://cdn.paladin-press.com/downloads/Lou_Chiodo_QA.pdf
  2. ^ Per U.S. DOJ FBI UCR statistics of Officers feloniously killed with firearms.
  3. ^ http://pointshooting.com/1asop9.htm - The NYPD's SOP 9 study findings of 6,000+ Police combat situations, details close quarters combat conditions, and Police Officers actions in them.
  4. ^ The rigid marksmanship requirments of Sight Reliant Shooting are detailed in the US Army's Marksmanship Unit's Pistol Marksmanship Guide, The US Army's FM 3-23.35 - Combat Training With Pistols M9 And M11, and MCRP 30-1B - US Marine Corps Pistol Marksmanship.
  5. ^ http://www.pointshooting.com/1abriefx.htm
  6. ^ In the 1804 book: Instructions For The Drill, on page 81 we find..."Pull the trigger strong with the middle finger." http://books.google.com/books?id=ScgKAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA83&dq=middle+finger+trigger+pull&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1
  7. ^ In a general Military Dictionary of 1810, we find that to fire you should..."Pull the trigger strong with the middle finger. http://books.google.com/books?id=BLxBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA369&dq=middle+finger+on+trigger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1
  8. ^ The Encyclopedia Perthensis of 1816 carries the same language. http://books.google.com/books?id=_UVQAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA655&dq=middle+finger+trigger+pull&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1
  9. ^ The Arcana of Science of 1829, mentions "pulling the trigger with the middle finger." http://books.google.com/books?id=bCMFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA70&dq=middle+finger+trigger+pull&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1
  10. ^ Helps And Hints - How To - Protect Life And Property, by: Lt. Col. Baron De Berenger, 1835. On pages 237, 238, and 239 the author states that the method is best used with dueling pistols, and in self defense situations against highway robbers, housebreakers, and etc., who will not allow one to take the time to deliberately aim with the sights. Another reason for its use in those situations, is that per the author, ..."can you be certain of your usual steadiness of nerve, when you look into the muzzle of a pistol presented at you, and menacing a fatal blaze." And on page 239, we find the following which addresses the argument of using Sight Shooting (wafer shooting) or Point Shooting for self defense in close quarters life threat situations: "I still repeat that the other, the rapid modes of pistol shooting, are by far the most desirable, for wafer shooting {sight shooting] is no more than a skilful plaything...." Basically, the shooting method calls for the use of the forefinger for aiming, and the use of the second finger for trigger pulling. And he says that it is easy to learn with very little practice. http://books.google.com/books?id=jSiQEVNLMMoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22He lps+and+Hints%22+Berenger&lr=&as_brr=1
  11. ^ Instructions in rifle and carbine firing for the United States army - 1885. On page 33 we find:..."If the trigger has been pulled with a jerk instead of a gradual pressure, ...Some riflemen advocate the employment of the second finger upon the trigger ..."
  12. ^ In the publication Recreation, January, 1898, on pg 148 we find: ..."In shooting a rifle, most sportsmen use the index finger to pull the trigger. If your readers would try using the second finger, and squeezing the hand together, instead of a direct pull, they would find a great difference in the pull of the trigger. This method is of great advantage when one has a standing shot at deer, as one is less liable to pull off." http://books.google.com/books?id=5UIQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA148&dq=shooting+guns+with+the+middle+finger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1
  13. ^ In the publication Bullet and Shot in Indian Forest..., 1900, we find: ..."Some beginners are very apt to 'pull off' in the act of firing. If such will make a practice of using the middle finger put well round the trigger, in place of the forefinger, they will probably find a great improvement in their shooting." http://books.google.com/books?id=5VtDAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA325&dq=forefinger+aiming+and+shooting+with+the+middle+finger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1
  14. ^ The following is from a review of the Mauser C-96 "Broomhandle" Machine Pistol by David M. Fortier. In it, he said that the C-96 was extremely popular in china from the early 1900s up through the 1940s and beyond. "....Special commando units were armed entirely with the C-96, and later the selective fire variants, as well as a large beheading sword carried in a leather scabbard on their back. Recognizing the Mauser's weak and strong points, the Chinese developed the following technique for using the C-96 and later the 712. They would hold it sideways (what we would today refer to as "Gangbanger style"), with the index finger lying on the magazine well pointing at the target, and pull the trigger with the middle finger." - (reproduced by permission) http://www.pointshooting.com/c96ok.pdf
  15. ^ This is wording from the 1908 US Patent 896099 issued to M. H. Gardner: "This invention relates to a device adapted for attachment to fire-arms of various kinds, more especially to shot - guns or hunting rifles, and has for its object to facilitate quick and accurate pointing of the weapon without being obliged to adjust the gun-stock to the shoulder for aiming at birds just rising from the bush or in flight, or at other game. The invention is based largely upon the fact that the conscious or sub-conscious faculties intuitively enable men to point the index finger directly and accurately at any visible object without bringing the outstretched finger into alignment with or between the eye and the object."
  16. ^ The following is from Joseph Renaud's self defense book: "la Defense Dans La Rue" 1912, as translated by James Farthing and Herve Dautry. Joseph Renaud was a professor of La Canne, Savate, Knife, English boxing and Jiu-Jitsu. The quote is from the chapter: "The Revolver: Special handling Some people will find it useful to press the trigger with the middle finger while keeping the index finger against the cylinder, parallel to the barrel. This technique relies on the habit of using the index finger to point at things. I heard the General de Chabot tell that such a method of shooting had saved his life in several occasions. For example, the day before the battle of Sarrebruck in 1870, he found himself face to face with a Prussian captain while seating in a small canteen. They both shot at each other straight away. Mr de Chabot had a single action weapon while his foe had a double action one. Nevertheless, the German missed five times while the French lieutenant mortally wounded him with his second shot. It must be noticed that both had fired hastily but this technique for handling the revolver makes instinctive shooting more accurate. Always used this technique with a good quality revolver, as it will prevent any spit of lead from between the cylinder and the barillet that would burn your fingers.." http://defensedanslarue.wordpress.com/history/the-revolver/
  17. ^ Automatic Pistol Shooting... 1915, ..."Some Englishmen shoot with the second finger on the trigger and the first along the pistol..." http://books.google.com/books?id=8iZzK2-aSWoC&q=how+to+shoot+pistols+with+the+second+finger&dq=how+to+shoot+pistols+with+the+second+finger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1&pgis=1
  18. ^ Cautionary language against using P&S with the 1911, is in the US Army's 1917 Small Arms Instructors Manual: An Intensive Course, Including Official... On Page 82 we find: "3. The trigger should be squeezed with the forefinger. If the trigger is squeezed with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils." http://books.google.com/books?id=z99EAAAAIAAJ&pg=PR9&dq=military+manual+on+the+1911+automatic&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1#PPA82,M1
  19. ^ On page 633 of the Complete United States infantry guide for Officers and noncommissioned... United States. War Dept - 1917 - 2074 pages, we find: "... The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  20. ^ On page 16 of the Description of the automatic pistol, caliber .45, model of 1911: with rules ... United States. Ordnance dept - 1917 - 20 pages, we find: "... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  21. ^ On page 23 of the Manual for noncommissioned Officers and privates of field artillery of the ... United States. War Dept, United States. Adjutant-General's Office - 1917, we find: "... forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ... "
  22. ^ On page 129 of the Handbook for seaman gunners: covering course for seaman gunners at the Navy Washington Navy Yard - 1918 - 397 pages, we find: "... The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver Is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  23. ^ On page 315 of Farrow's manual of military training - Edward Samuel Farrow - 1920 - 1034 pages, we find: "... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  24. ^ On page 3 of The R. O. T. C. manual: a text book for the Reserve Officers Training Corps - Paul Stanley Bond, Enoch Barton Garey, Olin Oglesby Ellis, Thomas Leroy McMurray - 1921, we find: "... it is apt to press against the projecting end of the slide stop pin, thus causing a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  25. ^ On page 612 of the Platoon Training by Lt. Col. William H. Waldron, United States Army, we find: "...(3) The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils." http://books.google.com/books?lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1&q=second+finger+on+trigger+platoon+training
  26. ^ On page 3 of an ROTC publication of 1921, we find: " ..."The trigger must be squeezed with the index finger. If the second finger is used on the trigger the index finger will be extended along the side of the receiver where it is apt to press again[st] the projecting end of the slide stop pin, thus causing a jam when the slide recoils. ..." http://books.google.com/books?id=holCAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA3-PA3&dq=second+finger+on+trigger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1
  27. ^ On page 13 of Training regulations: TR. - United States. War Dept - 1922, we find: "... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the ..."
  28. ^ On page 2 of the Field artillery manual - Arthur Riehl Wilson, Robert Melville Danford - Biography & Autobiography - 1925, we find: "... The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...
  29. ^ On page 31 of Special Regulations - California. Adjutant General's Office -Biography & Autobiography - 1926, we find: "... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  30. ^ On page 120 of the Manual of Basic Training and Standards of Proficiency for the National Guard United States - National Guard Bureau 1927, we find: "... The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  31. ^ On page 68 of Special Regulations - 1929, we find: "... extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ..."
  32. ^ On page 324 of The state defense force manual - Military Service Publishing Company - 1941 - 559, we find: "... extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a malfunction when the slide recoils. ..."
  33. ^ "Patent Images". Patimg2.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-20. 
  34. ^ This is wording from the 1908 US Patent 896099 issued to M. H. Gardner: "This invention relates to a device adapted for attachment to fire-arms of various kinds, more especially to shot - guns or hunting rifles, and has for its object to facilitate quick and accurate pointing of the weapon without being obliged to adjust the gun-stock to the shoulder for aiming at birds just rising from the bush or in flight, or at other game. The invention is based largely upon the fact that the conscious or sub-conscious faculties intuitively enable men to point the index finger directly and accurately at any visible object without bringing the outstretched finger into alignment with or between the eye and the object." http://patimg2.uspto.gov/.piw?Docid=00896099&homeurl=http%3A%2F%2Fpatft.uspto.gov%2Fnetacgi%2Fnph-Parser%3FSect1%3DPTO1%2526Sect2%3DHITOFF%2526d%3DPALL%2526p%3D1%2526u%3D%25252Fnetahtml%25252FPTO%25252Fsrchnum.htm%2526r%3D1%2526f%3DG%2526l%3D50%2526s1%3D0896099.PN.%2526OS%3DPN%2F0896099%2526RS%3DPN%2F0896099&PageNum=&Rtype=&SectionNum=&idkey=NONE&Input=View+first+page
  35. ^ "Patent Images". Patimg1.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-20. 
  36. ^ "Patent Images". Patimg2.uspto.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-20. 
  37. ^ Helps And Hints - How To - Protect Life And Property, by: Lt. Col. Baron De Berenger, 1835. On pages 237, 238, and 239 the author states that the method is best used with dueling pistols, and in self defense situations against highway robbers, housebreakers, and etc., who will not allow one to take the time to deliberately aim with the sights. Another reason for its use in those situations, is that per the author, ..."can you be certain of your usual steadiness of nerve, when you look into the muzzle of a pistol presented at you, and menacing a fatal blaze." And on page 239, we find the following which addresses the argument of using Sight Shooting (wafer shooting) or Point Shooting for self defense in close quarters life threat situations: "I still repeat that the other, the rapid modes of pistol shooting, are by far the most desirable, for wafer shooting {sight shooting] is no more than a skilful plaything...." Basically, the shooting method calls for the use of the forefinger for aiming, and the use of the second finger for trigger pulling. And he says that it is easy to learn with very little practice. http://books.google.com/books?id=jSiQEVNLMMoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22He lps+and+Hints%22+Berenger&lr=&as_brr=1
  38. ^ Chap. 2, Sect. II, US Army Field Manual 23-25, Combat Training With Pistols & Revolvers
  39. ^ This is alink to a video showing Aimed Point Shooting being used to shoot at and hit a string of aerials (pop cans tossed into the air at a distance of 3 meters +/- : http://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File%3AUsing_AIMED_Point_Shooting_or_P%26S_to_shoot_at_and_hit_a_string_of_aerials.ogv
  40. ^ "AIMED Point Shooting or P&S". Pointshooting.com. Retrieved 2013-10-20. 
  41. ^ Principles Of Quick Kill - US Army Training Text 23-71-1
  42. ^ This is a link to an article written by Robin Brown on Pistol Quick Kill: http://pointshooting.com/1arobin.htm
  43. ^ US Army Field Manual FM 23-9
  44. ^ 04:19 AM. "US Army Field Manual FM 3-06.11 Reflexive Fire Text". Threatfocused.com. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 

External links[edit]